09-CH13WESedits

09-CH13WESedits - Populations are the units of evolution X...

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populations evolve individuals are selected X Populations are the units of evolution
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evolution -- (1) all changes that have transformed life on earth from its beginnings to its current diversity, resulting from (2) microevolution -- any change in the genetic makeup of a population across generations population -- localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring gene pool -- all of the genes in a population at any one time recall that genes are carried on chromosomes; sexually reproducing species are diploid (carry two alleles for each character) modern synthesis = Darwinian evolution + Mendelian genetics
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polymorphism -- existence of two or more distinct phenotypes in the population Hawaiian happy face spiders http://evolution.berkeley.edu/ Variation is extensive in most populations northern cricket frog (check your local ponds)
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generate variation
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mutation -- change in DNA nucleotide sequence; corresponding change in mRNA codon may alter protein synthesis mutation = source of all heritable variation many mutations do not affect phenotype most that do are deleterious once in a while. .. under certain conditions. .. mutations can be beneficial individual with beneficial mutation can produce more offspring than competitors (natural selection in action) Mutation is the raw material for natural selection
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.. consider a population of
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09-CH13WESedits - Populations are the units of evolution X...

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