13-ch16-microbes

13-ch16-microbes - Early microbiologists

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Early microbiologists Chapter 27 Prokaryotes http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1363
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Prokaryotes: they’re (almost) everywhere! two whole domains: archaea, bacteria significant ecological roles. .. decomposition -- converts organic compounds to CO 2 gas; needed for photosynthesis nitrogen fixation -- convert N 2 gas to nitrates, nitrites (in soil); needed for plants to make amino acids denitrification -- (reverse of above); release atmospheric N 2 pathogens. .. e.g., cholera, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, anthrax, lyme disease, rocky mountain spotted fever, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, tetanus, cat scratch fever, pneumonia, meningitis, leprosy, food poisoning (salmonellosus, botulism, etc.), urinary tract infections, toothache http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacteria.html
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unicellular, 1-5 micrometers cell wall no organelles (compartmentalization) asexual reproduction via binary fission (mitosis) but have methods for occasional transfer of genetic material Meet the prokaryotes. .. cocci spirilla & spirochetes bacilli http://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm
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The amazing reproductive potential of binary fission Some species can produce a new generation in only 20 minutes under optimal conditions. If reproduction continued unchecked at this rate, a single prokaryote could give rise to a colony outweighing Earth in only three days! In reality, of course, prokaryotic reproduction is limited, as the cells eventually exhaust their nutrient supply, poison themselves with metabolic wastes, or are consumed by other organisms. .. (Campbell & Reece 7th ed.)
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The prokaryotic cell nucleoid region contains concentrated mass of DNA (very simple “chromosome”) plasmids -- extra (much smaller) rings of DNA
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taxis -- movement toward (+) or away (-) from a stimulus flagellum = basal apparatus (motor) + filament (flagellin protein) structure differs from eukaryotic flagella Some prokaryotes are motile. ..
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endospore -- thick-coated, resistant cell produced within a bacterial cell exposed to harsh conditions e.g., lack of moisture, nutrient shortage
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13-ch16-microbes - Early microbiologists

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