American Gov Exam 1

American Gov Exam 1 - Terms to know for the 1st Exam...

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Terms to know for the 1 st Exam Affirmative Action – Giving special groups (i.e. Blacks) access to educational and employment opportunities Amendment – change or addition to the constitution, bill of rights, etc. Anti-Federalists – they oppose the creation of a stronger national government under the constitution and they wanted to leave it under the articles of confederation Articles of Confederation – first written constitution, concerned primarily with limiting the powers of the central government. Congress had little power. All governmental powers are retained by the states Authoritarian Government – a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions. Autocracy – a form of government in which a single individual rules Bicameral Legislature – a legislature which consists of two houses Bill of Attainder – an act of legislature declaring a person is guilty of some crime and punishing them without benefit of trial. Bill of Rights – the first 10 commandments to us constitution adopted in 1791. Ensures certain rights and liberties to the people. Block Grants – federal finds given to state amendments to pay for goods, services, or programs, with relatively few restrictions on how the funds may be spent. Brown v. Board of Education – had to do with the plessy v. ferguson case saying it was unconstitutional to segregate blacks and whites in different public schools denying blacks equal educational opportunities was a violation of the 14 th amendment equal protection clause Categorical Grants – funds given by congress to states and localities that are embarked by law for specific categories, such as education or crime prevention. (i.e. 55 mph limit was imposed by the states, after congress gave them money for it) Citizenship – Civil Liberties – Strongest limitation of power, 4 in constitution mainly in bill of rights, protection of citizens from improper governmental action. Under due process of law. Civil Rights – the legal or moral claims that citizens are entitled to make on the government. Did not become part of constitution until 1868. 14 th amendment under the
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equal protection of law clause Checks and Balances – the mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches. Clear and Present Danger Test – the criterion used to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capacity to present a clear and present danger to society. (i.e. espionage act of 1917) Commerce Clause – delegates to congress the power to regulate the commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with Indian tribes. Favor national power over the economy. There were many issues: 1-whether congress had the power to charter a bank-YES 2-question of whether Maryland’s attempt to tax the bank was constitutional-NO Concurrent Powers – the authority possessed by both state and national government, (i.e.
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course POLISCI 202 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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American Gov Exam 1 - Terms to know for the 1st Exam...

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