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Water planet mideterm study guide

Water planet mideterm study guide - WATER PLANET STUDY...

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WATER PLANET STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 What makes the "Earth System Study" different than traditional scientific disciplines? -traditional scientific disciplines- study the earth was in separate units in isolation from other units. -In the earth system study approach, the earth is studied as a whole and is views as a system of many separate, but interacting parts. -Earth system science is the study of the whole earth as a system and focuses on the changes within and between those parts (atmosphere, hydrosphere, biospshere, geosphere) What are the different components of the earth's system? -atmosphere- mixture of gases, predominantly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and water vapor, that surrounds the earth. ACNOW -hydrosphere- includes all of earth’s water, except for water vapor in the atmosphere -biospshere- all of earth’s organisms and any organic material not yet decomposed -geosphere- the solid earth, composed of mostly rock and the regolith. -regolith- the irregular blanket of loose, uncemented rock particles that covers the solid earth What processes led to the formation of the different chemical elements in the solar system? - nucleosynthesis- it formed clouds of hydrogen, helium, and lithium -nuclear fusion is the energy-producing process taking place continuously in sun and stars What is an atom? An element? Compound? Mineral? -atom- smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination with other atoms -base of all chemical compounds -element- aka chemical elements- the most fundamental substances in which matter can be separate by ordinary chemical means -compound- one or more kinds of anion combine with one or more kinds of cation in a specific ratio -mineral- any naturally formed solid chemical element or chemical compound having a definite composition and a characteristic crystal structure What are the most abundant elements in Earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere? -oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium. (in order, O and Si are the most) What processes led to the evolution of the solar system? -big bang, - nucleosynthesis, -solar nebula- -Planetary accretion: A small amount of matter of the solar nebula formed outer, smaller systems revolving around the sun.
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Why is our planet unique relative to other planets in the solar system? Name two important factors leading to this uniqueness? -plate tectonics -liquid water (only planet)- other planets have either water in the form of ice or vapor -life- -other planets lack atmospheres which holds the gasses in What would happen to the Earth if we were closer to the sun? Farther from the sun? -if it was closer, our atmosphere would burn away and our water would be in he form of water vapor -if we were farther, our water would be in the form of ice, and our core would not be hot anymore System definitions: isolated, closed, open -isolated- you CAN’T exchange energy, but CAN exchange matter -closed- you CAN exchange energy and matter -open- you CAN exchange energy but CAN’T exchange matter -EARTH IS ESSENTIALLY A CLOSED SYSTEM
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