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Final Paper Q - Quality and Total Quality Management...

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Quality and Total Quality Management Although quality and quality management does not have a formal definition, most agree that it is an integration of all functions of a business to achieve high quality of products through continuous improvement efforts of all employees. Quality revolves around the concept of meeting or exceeding customer expectation applied to the product and service. Achieving high quality is an ever changing, or continuous, process therefore quality management emphasizes the ideas of working constantly toward improved quality. It involves every aspect of the company: processes, environment and people. The whole workforce from the CEO to the line worker must be involved in a shared commitment to improving quality. Therefore, in brief, quality and total quality management (TQM) in particular can be defined as directing (managing) the whole (total) production process to produce an excellent (quality) product or service. It differs from other management techniques in the attitude of management toward the product and toward the worker. Older management methods focused on the volume of production and the cost of the product. Quality was controlled by using a detection method (post production inspection), problems were solved by management and management's role was defined as planning, assigning work, controlling the production. Quality management, in contrast, is focused on the customer and meeting the customer's needs. Quality is controlled by prevention, i.e., quality is built in at every stage. Teams solve problems and everyone is responsible for the quality of the product. Management's role is to delegate, coach, facilitate and mentor. The major quality management principles are: quality, teamwork, and proactive management philosophies for process improvement. ORIGINS Quality management in is not derived from a single idea or person. It is a collection of ideas, and has been called by various names and acronyms: TQM, total quality management; CQU, continuous quality improvement; SQC, statistical quality control; TQC, total quality control, etc. However each of these ideas encompasses the underlying idea of productivity initiatives that increase profit by improving the product. Though most writers trace the quality movement's origins to W. Edward Deming, Joseph M. Juran and Philip B. Crosby, the roots of quality can be traced even further back, to Frederick Taylor in the 1920s. Taylor is the "father of scientific management." As manufacturing left the single craftsman's workshop, companies needed to develop a quality control department. As manufacturing moved into big plants, between the 1920s and the 1950s, the terms and processes of quality engineering and reliability engineering developed. During this time productivity was emphasized and quality was checked at the
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end of the line. As industrial plants became larger, post-production checks became more difficult and statistical methods began to be used to control quality. This was called reliability engineering
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