Chapter 8 353 - Chapter 8 Stereotype­ explicit expression...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Stereotype­ explicit expression of negative racial and gender.. Stereotype � � � � �� Stereotype � � � ��� judgement, behavior influence �� .. ¶ 1. product of the prevailing culture( � � ) 2. result from deep personal needs­ X 3. categorization. ( ¶ “* � • “ * , superior social order �� .. ˙d9 .. covariation assessment.. Stereotype­ pictures in our heads by Walter Lippman. ­an exaggerated belief associated with a category by Gordon Allport ­ it is typically viewed as cognitive structures that contain our knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about a social group. ­ containing a mix of abstract knowledge about a group from many examples from exp.. ­prototype � � Stereotype Ex. @@ � � � causal knowledge � � � �� � K ”E � �� Subtype­ Stereotype ( ¶ “ � Stereotype �� Stereotype ‚ ¶ “*� � �� �� � � �� .. � � … R 1 � � p ” � � .. E �� ‹ d9 �. ex. 3 X • “* represents all ¶ “ �� ‹ d 9 �.. � � � � � ˝Þ “ * �� … “if you have seen one, you have seen them all.” Stereotype impression ( ¶ “ �� ‹ ˙ d 9… effort saved…. Stereotype Activation – automatic? no intention? So colors our judgement really fast? ª* h the most trait- aggressive… by Devine - subliminal exposure to words related to hostility.. h - ambiguous h hostile manner HÚ l· ª· –hostilityà ’ Õ¬ )À K d negative À .. , primed them with words that were related to the AA Stereotype but were unrelated to hostility. Ex. Negroes, lazy, blacks, blues, rhythm Very briefly exposed… h form an impression of a person who had performed a series of ambiguously hostile behaviors. h -- Donald aggressive H r· … Heavy priming with Stereotype-related words appeared to activate the construct of hostility, even though none of these words related directly to hostility. ¸ r · Ø authomatically, unconsiciously AA h Stereotype Even a brief exposure to AA faces can suffice for other Americans to activate the negative Stereotype of this group. Subliminal presentation of photographs of AA can cause other Americans to activate the construct of hostility and lead them to behave in a more hostile manner. à) ·ª ’ ¬Ç h.. B K either h or h .. e J ºE 7y @ @ ºK@ E A .. H Ú ’ ª· aggressive h h - participants who had been primed subliminally with AA faces responded in a more hostile manner than did participants who had been primed with Caucasian faces. @ @ N Øu á – B ¸ Ø r·ª negative AA Stereotypeh automatically…. In short, neutral reminders of black ppl can automatically trigger in other ppl neg thoughts, feelings and behaviors without any awareness on their part that they have even been reminded of this group. Ex. e ¸ˆ ß ª ’ Í °Þ y@ ª’ w @ @ K Eº I .. @ w á u NØ q .. ¸ Ø ·ª There is evidence for the automatic activation of the Stereotype of old and young ppl and of gender Stereotype. ¤ •“ � � Stereotype Cause and Effect – ( automatic �� ¶ “ �� �� � �� Controlled processing ˙d 9 � aggressive (�� �� � � � � .. @ � � � aggressive • “* � … cause and effect… interview 4 �� � �� � . it proves that AA mistreatment cause and effect ¤ • “* � belief ¤ � �� � 1 + � p ” E� � �I K E �� I ” E � � ‘ I” E .. job � � � � �� !!! � � � � � � @ K ”� �� � .. affects performance… �� ��� • “ Stereotype — ” E �� � @I E � � � 7 � *� @ � .. Þª *� 1 �� � — N 1+� � …. Still exp an automatic activation of the neg Stereotype. But they can still override and suppress the activation of this Stereotype if they are aware and have sufficient time and resources to suppress it. •“ .. automatic inevitable,,, belief • “ .. � � controlled processing ( � � � � �Ł ]• * .. (only low in prejudice) Modern Racism Scale­ allow ppl to express neg toward racial groups by responding to statements that do not necessarily imply prejudice. • Fazio – automatic affective reactions to a word representing one object can speed up or slow down evaluations of other positive and neg words. Ex. War � � �� �� Ÿ .. pleasant @ � � � �� �� awful • “ * �� � Æu N 1 � �B � �� … � —war gives rise automatically to neg affect that facilitates the evaluation of affectively congruent words and inhibits the evaluation of incongruent ones. ‚ Fazio­ reaction time button ¶ … �� “*… ˝“ � � .. ˙ d 9… Facilitation score reflected the extent to which each face had speeded up or slow down the p articipants response to the adjective. � ­ � � automatic reactions to 8 positive adjective •“ w ere more neg than their reactions to ¨ • “ .. less facilitation when primed by a Black than by a White face.. Neg adjective= more facilitation primed by Black… ���� �� …) � • .. � � � � p ositive 87 7 “*� ¬ ˙d �� n eg ¨ · “ * … ( � � � 7 ! !!!!!!!!!!! � � � � � � � 7 p erception � � ���� @ @ �� u N1 + B �� � ( � ��� � … @ � � � � !! n eg. automatic reactions to � !! Related!!!!!!!! @ b ehavior � Modern Racism Scale � �� 1. ¨ 7 r elated � �� �� � � … . � � �7 .. · “ p rejudice �� �� �� � .. 2. Tapped conservatism Neutral word ( � !!) � � � � � � 7 high prejudice neg Stereotype � … low ¨ • “ When primed with the information that is directly related to the neg. Stereotype, all ppl will automatically activate this Stereotype, regardless of their prejudice. When cued with ghetto and welfare, even nonprejudiced individuals may automatically think aggression.. Cognitive busyness can disrupt the spontaneous activation of Stereotype. ­if the Stereotype is activated, the Stereotypic words will become more accessible. Ex.S_Y,,, RI_E asian 8 •“ � .. soy rice ¨ … Exposure to an Asian person did lead to the activation of the Asian American Stereotype: RA … ˜9 a sian related H • “* � .. � —cognitive busy �� .. ¤ •“ * � � Stereotype �� � �� 8 �� �� �9 • .. H “* � Stereotype ¤ • … RA �� �… � ­ the spontaneous activation of Stereotype is not inevitable, it will occur only if we have sufficient conginitive resources.. � .. Asian Stereotype9 H • “ *?? � .. � � � � � � � “ *� � ‹ d 9.. H · subliminal activation H • “ * …. However, there is an additional cues… that activate Stereotype…. Ex. �� � �� � 9 .. u need to feel superior to the others…therefore,, u activate Stereotype… To derogate the others.. (((Bargh’s auto­motive theory… ­ strong relation btw personal failure and neg Stereotype.)))) Cognitive busy �� �� � �9 strong cue � Stereotype ¤ • …. Stereotype activation can be inhibited… A person who belongs to more than one stereotyped group.. Chinese Woman…. �� � �� � 9 • .. 100% 0% ¤ • “ ….. Macrae­> people suppress the less dominant of the two applicable Stereotype in order to avoid distraction and interference… H •“ � p ositive feedback ��� ! !! Motivation Motivation� Ex. (� 9 • “*� !!!motivation to suppress � � � � � �9 … � !!!!!! pick and choose and not to choose such Stereotype…. � � �� 7 “ *� � .. suppress Stereotype….. � � � �� ‹ Ç d… � �� … @ � Stereotype inhibit… ��� Stereotype ( • “ !! ·ª Control the thought B r Û˜ Eº · ª … suppress the thought@ @K… @ … á uØ Mq B inc… activation… Faster to respond to Stereotypic words… also carry into behavior!!!!!!!!!!! F B ºE @K F ª· ’ … sit further away…..h One’s Stereotypes may lead one to interpret the identical behavior quite differently… Ex. K Eº e Ambiguous situation˜ … y@ … violenth aggressive …. r … stereotypes associated with race, social class, or profession can lend different meanings to the same ambiguous behaviors… Ex. Success of Ûr ˜ J ·ª ¬Õ ’ .. ª ) .. h è d K !!!! luck h …. ) .. It is callled“Ultimate attribution error.” The identical trait gains different meanings when applied to differently Stereotyped individuals. -lawyerh aggressive h .. è ..argumentative˜ Ú r ’ ª …. One Stereotype may lead to the activation of a particular subtype of another.. Ex. Harvard Carpenter- master carpenter.. h Shifting Standards…] rJl ª’ Õ¬ K d different standard… nurse- psychiatric nurse… & > ° .. � � H ª * B+ ł H&> 80 F� ƒ. R1 pK E ÿ ºE ðIºE `… A­ ª* Even subjective term, good, (�� � �� 7 @ � � � @ @ .. Objective measure­ such as letter grade… �� subjective h > “* �‹ d 9� .. Additional information­ individuating information… Ppl typically use base rates to make judgments about an individual when they know nothing else about this ind… � (Stereotype ł individuating info � � � • …) B � � �… � � � ” � � � �� �� � �� base­rate �� … � � � K ” Stereotype � � � �� � H … aggressive ��� H &> .. Ambiguous situation… Construction worker aggressive �� ł . @ � � � Æ u 1 � � B � � � � � .. “* punching �� …housewife �� � The Stereotype influences the construal ( � ) of the behavior….. ambiguous B� � �� � ambiguous � ambiguous �� � �J” ��� Stereotype ( � � � �@ K… � � � 7 @ � � � @ @ .. � �� � H & ~~~~ aggressive *Individuating infor � � �� aggressive ‘&> “ *�� worker � �� � � �H trait @ @ � intensity H • “* �Æ u… … d 9� construction worker trait � � .. (likely behavior ( � � � � �7 Stereotype � � � �� � .. 1 +� � B� � � � Stereotype ł � aggressive H • “ .. � • “* .. � � � construction @ ���� @ @..) � H .. mental capacity ł …… “ * Not using Stereotype seems to require effort. When we r tired, distracted,, or pressed for time.. Morning ppl, Night ppl… especially likely to use their Stereotype when they are caught during their “off-peak”hours.. Ex. Morning ppl relied on their Stereotype only in the afternoon… *stereotypes are easier to use than individuating info.. (quick and easy heuristics..)) Inhibiting Stereotype may be effortful… … one way of gaining self-worth is through comparing myself to less competent others… -˜ x ª’ Õ¬Ç … Stereotype…. Ex. Jewish American Princess” –failure Ex. h x - ?? ˜ - x evaluatorFÜ Õ¬ Ç d ª* J ewish .. x- x… .. EVaulator h self-worth¨ r · Ù … .. · ª .. h .. x .. self-protective motives!!!!!Apply neg Stereotype…. *˜- x ’ ª Õ dÇ K Ex. Kunda .. Stereotyped¨ Ù r ª · ’ -x x· .. .. appearance F r ’ ª· .. xx - .. Called “category-based impressions” Serial Models… (h impression formation) ContinuumModel - mix of Stereotype and individuating info Dual Process- personalized …. Stereotype x - .. featureh .. reflects the impression.. integration of all features… Stereotype Based process- impression dominated by Stereotype Attribute based process- impression dominated by individuating info. Both serial model h.. ˜ - x ª’ Õ¬ d K StereotypeÙ ¨ ·’ ª .. ª Õ¬Ç Kunda ( attribute­based 9 Parallel processing model of impression formation.. •“ * … ‹˙ 9 ��� Stereotype � � � � � Stereotype � (( h • “ *� .. individuating info “ * constrain • influence h �� … jointly and simultaneously influence impressions… •“ meaning � � �� �� ) “Parallel­constraint satisfaction model” p.367….368.. Parallel can readily explain these difference ; they arise from the fact that some aspects of the Stereotype that have not been undermined by the individuating info… are more strongly associated with the behavior than with the trait in question.. The serial models assume that u will h • “ * Stereotype � � .. h • integrate it with behavior h • behaviors… when u want to know him or her more… (Stereotype Parallel � � � … � � * � ..) influence h • … Jeniffer Crocker h • … ­ difficulty that Black students experience when they try to make sense of feedback received from their White peers… Self­esteem B � � �� � �J”E Blind ( •“ � �� � �� � � ..? � � � �@ ”.. K ˙ d 9 ��� .. neg. feedback � .. self­esteem h • pos. feedback ��� � � �� … as normal ppl do.. � .. • �� * black h � �� � �� � • “* neg. feedback � .. @ @ � � … N .. ‚ ¶ *� pos.feedback �� + ��B � � � � � ? �� � = ∙ * � .. inc and dec � � • “… ? � � �� ·* .. � .. self­esteem �� Stereotype Threat – Fear that I will give wrong answer…. It proves stereotype… TT to confirm the Stereotype…. h Academic abilityrÙ r performance ª black students performed considerably worse than their equally prepared White peers… F ÙH ª* .Ø« · * ± Õ Ç¬ intellectualh Stereotype threatà Academic testw @ @ á NØ … ..( e · ª’ y@ @ q B @ l· ’ ª academic ability«à Õ Ç¬ K d K .. … Stereotype threat @ Kº ª· «À !!! l « u) Black students under Stereotype threat showed greater activation of the Balck Stereotypethan did Black or White students in any other condition. «à l ’ ª à« l Õ¬ Ç ’ ª K .. h ? h Õ¬ h race à l « …K ’ ª Õ settingrÙr · ª Ç dK HÙ · ’ ª ´= ’ ª … harmh…. h · ª ’ Stereotype change rÙ ·’ ª !!!! Contact hypothesis.. Stereotypeà «À l· ’ ª ¬Õ K d Stereotyper r· ’ ª !!!.. .. equal status and in pursuit of common goals. difference race r r ’ ª· Cooperation!!!!!!!!! (likingh h genderh . Remediation program – ߈ ¸ rÙ .. supportive environmentfor stereotyped indiv..h contact hypothesis à Robber’s Cave Exp….à respecth l· ª K d ¬Ç Õ l’ ª· Õ … !!) …. dK Ç .. h ?? Cooperationh immediateh reduction in hostilityh !!! h .. Stereotype « l· .. behavior according to our own Stereotype… h Stereotype À« l .. behavior l .. r Ù r ’ « ª À« l .. … !! ‚ ¶ª* atypical x • “ X=´ .. � * .. � � � � � Renee Weber � fencing off.. Stereotype ‘ fi � @KE ”� � � … � � �7 @ Jennifer Crocker h Dispersed Condition – 30 � – 30 h “ *� ‹ ˙ black @ @� � subtype, � Æu N 1 + B � �… * description � .. ·ª description x • “ awkward 9� participation ( � � � � • “* changed Stereotype…. Concentrated condition­ 10 x � � Stereotype x • “* • “* description �� description � � � � .. Stereotype � � � � � � @ subtype x• * �� Stereotype X • “*� Social order x• � ­� .. ‚ = ∙“ * � � � @ feature x • “* atypical � � �� � �� ® � .. Stereotype ( � � … � � ∙ .. ‹ ˙d …. … superiority.. discrimatory behavior � � info 2 �� � � ¶“ … � ƒ . … 1 + �� K ” E � � I” �� � �� � � … ” E� ` .. � � Stereotype stays…. Neutral attribute � � � � � � @ • .. neutrality h • … subtype x • “* … The person who deviated from the Stereotype only moderately provoked greater Stereotype change than did the person who deviated extremely… *more inaccurate our Stereotype of a group, the less likely it is to change spontaneously following encounters with group members…….. � �� � � � @fi.. � � � … hypothesis h • “ …. Stereotype x • short term � � � � � � � long term The Princeton Trilogy. Xfi• * � � ‹˙ d … � � !!!! @ fi contact “ ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2011 for the course PSYCH 353 taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '11 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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