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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 353
Predict the others future behavior from our observations of their past behavior.
L ittle consistency from one situation to other different situations.
9 consistency @
Ç … shouldn’t be confident!!!! ? False Consensus.
w ith sandwich sign.. “repent”
by Lee Ross.. ----@
Ó Õ Ç
d wear H
ª 23% ªÀ
ªº .. Ç…
d Ó .. !!! False consensus effect .
ë D 7
… … False consensus is a relative effect.
False Consensus- a difference between the estimates of ppl with different opinions, or as a
positive correlation between one’s own opinions and one’s estimate of other people’s….
µ correlation à ºè Õ* Ç
9 H åª
µ* ?? è µ
ª .. è µ response H *
º familiar D
ë ø .. (( (familiar ppl) @ú
7 • ø
º @ @ ..) @ .. It is like a availability heuristic!!!!!!!!!!!! -prevalence rate Motivation .. familiar .. Ì * .. estimate è å
µ false consensus H
ª .. Ð
when many others share them.. * Õ
d .. failure ê humiliating… … failure
å … feel less false consensus effect… False Consensus Effect .. governed causes … . What causes my choice….
Þ external force 8
* response á idiosyncratic quirks *
* u… , we will be less likely to expect others to react like we do… ((((((External vs Internal))))) False consensus 8 å *
8 idiosyncratic way @ @… á Ç*
µ Ðú @
º … … 8†
5 .. ÷ª
Ç 1 Ì … Y±
Ç construe differently… Pluralistic Ignorance…
@ á @@ W
Ç … á x
@ … * Ç*
± .. (
h… .å .. ( *
ª @ 7
X ..)))) ..
… D @ .. ’… Such failure on the part of most ppl to realize that others share their own private reactions
has been termed pluralist ignorance.
PI coined by Floyd Allport… describe situation in which almost everyone privately rejects a group norm, yet believs that most other group members accept it.. .,, public behavior did not reflect the private attitudes…P ê…
º .. public behavior does not reflect their private attitudes. public of rejection or embarrassment.. believe that*
Ý public fear µ*
ª genuine ..
???? 0 ê
u D @ … keenly aware of our own fears and insecurities but have little evidence of the fears and insecurities of others.
PI … why bystanders become less likely to intervene in an emergency when t hey are in the presence of others.. •P
µ calm @ á Àª
* … º*
ª confusion W ´| *
? … µ
ª .. accept the majority’s construal as reality…
PI conformity to norm
ª ( ˆ Õ
Ý å * 2 ÕÇ
Ç antisocial x å*
Ý 1 .. è
* @ @
ë PI å ª
µ* … *
Ç just exp. Increasing alienation..
Ç * … PI no longer feel pressure…. relative effect- @
@ abosulte effect-@
á False consensus ±
* y .. … felt less social pressure to drink excessively… False consensus
7 … Entering undergraduate Princeton…@
x ..( ú
ú discomfort with norm ÷
µ .. ¬d
Ý … Ç
´ ´ .. .. less prevalent… … least likely to occur in idiosyncratic causes. Students were more accurate about their ingroup than about the out-group.
ª group È Æ
9 vary accurate .. stereotype Å
` .. in- 8… When describing what other people are like, we rely heavily on personality traits.
Which means… trait plays in our impression.
4000 words in English that denote personality traits. We also use traits to make sense of other people’s behavior.
Temporal stability- demonstrate consistent behavior from one situation to the same
situation at different times. Ex. È Æ
ª¹ .. ( @
7 @ .. Cross-situational consistency – demonstrate consistent behavior from one situation to
different situations that are presumed to tap the same trait. Ex. È Æ
` .. .. We tend to see far more consistency than there really is in people’s trait- related behavior. To determine the actual consistency of behavior, we must go out and examine actual
behavior, in real-life situations. And it is hard to conduct!!!!!!!!!!!!! Lol….
People often behave quite consistency when they encounter the same situation at different
t imes, but there is very little consistency in their trait- related behavior from one situation
to other, different situations. (´
Ç cross-situational cons. 0.23 … 0.70 Èª¹
ë ..) .. 0.49
.. 0.14 Trait theories of personality rest on the assumption that behavior is consistent across many
diverse situations. Seymour Epstein È ªå …
µ . Even though the correlation between any two behaviors is low, the correlation between two
aggregates of behavior can still be quite substantial.
Ex. X µ
ª ..y next season ê D P
* Aggregated measure
ë overall performance for ..based on last season’s single game å
È ¸ … .. chance factor X *
å .. quite stable across the life span… … even when we know a person well… we cannot do a good job of p redicting this person’s behavior in novel situations. Ex. Job interview….. correlation
0.10… so low.. Accuracy from This slices of behavior.
People observing only a very thin slice of another’s behavior, often as little as a 30-second
v ideotape with the sound turned off, can predict this person’s long-term performance with
¬ 10 (
d … 7 10 È @
viewer correlation .. even nonverbal cue 0.76 even briefly …P
Î .. Each judge’s rating reflects not only the target’s actual personality but also the judge’s
idiosyncratic biases and errors… h
… j udge … ªº Õ
9 judge `
Ç9 t he accuracy of any ind judge will be far lower than the accuracy of the avg. judgement of a group of judges.. A single person cannot assess thin
slices of behavior with much accuracy…. The fundamental Attribution Error…
Underestimate the extent to which behavior is shaped by the constraints of the situation
and overestimate the extent to which it is shaped by ppl’s underlying dispositions. .. questioner or contestant… questioner à
è è contestant ˜ ø
ª behavior ø t rait @ @ Õ *
Ç … 9
d … observer situation force è å
… y Ex. Pro-castro essay è åª
questioner * .. ø ª
* correspondence bias ø
castro ( ˆ Õ
¹ *… H
H .. personality
ª . . Correction requires effort…. I t was clear that participants dramatically overestimated the consistency of traits….
… 0.80 è
… In cases where people could be expected to be accurate, participant’s estimates showed
remarkable accuracy. ((Like in ability- related behaviors such as performance at basketball
games and on spelling tests.)) accurate in abilities than traits because the correlations for
abilities are easier to detect…
t rait … . Little consistency … µ
ª .. situation è
t rait è å*
ª .. The librarian carries the old woman’s groceries across the street.
The semantic cues improved recall… books- librarian
T rait cues… help ppl to remember the sentence about the person carrying groceries for an old woman…
T rait cues improved memory for sentensce that implied those traits…
( @ @ sementic cue .. This occurred despite the fact that the semantic cues were typically more strongly
associated with the words in the sentence than were the trait cues… T raits are inferred spontaneously at the time a related behavior is observed.. X Æ
( situation … Æ
` * .. behavior ( Õ *º
ª & º actual recall X Æ …
¹ Carol Availability heuristic. Different construals .. without awareness or effort….
self-fulfilling… Extreme Extreme case… sociable and shy..… False Consensus Governed causes conclusion exaggerate the cross-situational consistency… . ? cognitive biase Motivation … * .. cross-situational high Ø
… describe Ç
d consistency Conclusion…. L inda t rait i mpression… dispositional terms is so ingrained…. X ¹
ª t rait Õd
Ç memory reconstruction low .. Ø
d … ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2011 for the course PSYCH 353 taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '11 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.
- Spring '11