Chapter 11 353 - Chapter 11 353 Anthropologist � Eastern...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 353 Anthropologist � Eastern vs Western � … Africa � � � .. ¨ { – farmer’s effort.. ( � � � ¤{ * � � !!! � ­ � � � � � � � @ � ��… �� ���� � �� � � … 7 @ … America­self as distinct from others… different special.. Japaness –interrelated and dependent of the other… harmonoiously… with others… Experimental anthropology…. Cultural difference ¤{ “* … Fundamental Attribution error­ disposition> situational force.. Non­western less do this….. �� .. Western­ independent.. unique individual.. autonomous, separate being… Ex, I am smart, kind, good at math… � interdependent � �� � �� … not central idea……TT Eastern.­ interdependent… connected with others… try to fit in with social group… Ex. I respect my parents,.. I want my company to outperform its rival… Embrace its assigned role, focuses on social duties and obligations and tries to figure out what others are thinking and feeling so as to best meet their expectations. �� � � � �� � wish �� �� � interdependent ¨ ) “ … infantile ¤ ) “* � .. generally more benevolent than independent ppl.. � …� .. ¤ { ) “ in­group very narrowly defined… Western­ ¨ ) “ ? �� � �� � ¶” .. in­group �� Eastern-è Tµ W ª .. @ x @ á ¸( + … Relative Richness of Self-representation.. Unfamiliar one a familiar one similar ø z T Ex. USA a Mexico… USA D ø… Mexico .??? A ?¶ ª W èzT µ @x @ mexico A ¶º ª W Õ ¬ dÇ .. USA è ø . ¶… a 2@ ª W… we know unique attributes… A ?¶ Õ Çd… unique … similaritya highz ø a North American = a self(a)t 2h familiara Independentø Tªµ W ª Ç¬Õ d ¬Õ Çd .. ªµ W … x@ than h ? ª º W .. .. self is more richly represented than the other.. … interdependent è T µ z W a .. = Their knowledge of others may be as rich or richer than their self-knowledge.. A? º ª W Õ Ç 9d ø .. B ¶ º .. (a Jl ) a= .. a Who am I? question a cultureè z øz ) µª @K … µª … – one’s stable, independent inner self ……global traits, abilities and ø preferences.. z è Tµ ª … - no separation between one’s identity and one’s social context.. Social affiliation…. Universal abstractions… ,activities,,, preference , and abstractions… a restricted situation è T z ªW … T µª ᥸( + B … trait terms may lose their global, cross­situational meaning… ª Qualified… I am silly with close friens… {) “ … unqualified traits… studious.. quiet, boastful… ��� … � � � {) “ m ore unqualified… � � � � �� … in context­free self description… … context­specific � Western tends to explain other behavior in terms of stable underlying dispositions.. ­( � � � � ł < ¶ “* …. ex. Wrongdoing­ > dishonesty Easterner � � � �� social behavior {) � � ��� … personality � .. � � �� � � ł “ * �� � vs |) (� � ���� �� =� µ… @ � � �� � ��� �� @ …only mature ppl ł � � � @ E� � � � ‹˙d � � � ��� ‚ * �� ˙d … dispositional ) 7 @… Easternern … fish (social scenarios) � ��� understanding � � �� internal |) =� x2 (context) interpersonal relationship, circumstances, Chinese Society… )“ ª* �� … culture | interpersonal situation .. x3 (disposition) � = � ‚ “*� �� |) “ “ * � .. social role � ‹ ˙ 9 �…. � Chinese Article Westerner )“ * � external |) situational one )… � � ..???? | ) … social event theories � � � � � � … � � .. (physical scenarios) … on physical event… (�� � � �7 � �� … @ physical event ł ‚ * �� ‹˙ d � )µ .. * a !!!!Fundamental Attribution error ¨ x@ @ ᥠ=’ J B ,, situation= Ex. Pro-castro p T µ Western cultureè | 2h @ p castro µª … x@… p. paradigma unmodified = 2@ … x@ paradigma modifieda situational constraints are highlighted, Americans continue to make the error, whereas East Asians do not… =g^ ªº 6^ ¸ ªW A…. Dissonance Reduction Theory…- B … …. ˆ ? ¶º a Westernera @ WÕ @ á a ….¨ | µ =g º ª ¸= J ¸ 8 ^¶ ª W ª W Heine a …. Foolish = g W ªº K@ ..= 2h @ Lehman¨ 6^ ¶ … Tµ … b change their attitude… ?? a… ª .. preference a feedback ˆ ?¶º è | Tµ B ?¶ p *… E Ç d …. uniquea …?? a Eastern J 1-10 | è … ªW b …neg. feedback ?¶ • ¬ Ç d9… personality feedback x @ ª Ǭ á ¸= J ’ … self-worth ˆ ¶ ºªW B… … Ç d9 . less inclined to reaffirm their self-worth… choice p ? core ¨ | ªµ W !!! Identitya p … not threaten their identities… ? p make ¨ | ªµ report lower levels of self-esteem than do North American.. feel bad… unhappy it doesn’t … ¨| ) µ ª low self-esteema less satisfy= 2h @… è | ) µª focus less on self.. highlights on interdependentwith others. The more individualistic the country, the stronger association between self-esteem and life satisfaction!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!a~a ª* � …. � � � ¬Çd ÐÕþ positive �� � � � � � Õ þ ¸ ..trait, abilities, prospects h } “ self­sufficient, worthy indi… B�� � � � � � E �� � � � � � �� @ … Self­enhancing bias: a substantial proportion of its members must be placing themselves higher than they really are in the distribution.. (� � � � � ��— 50% B� � � � � ( � �� � � ^ô J � � � �� � � @KE � � � � � � Õþ �J ‚ ..) E � � �� �� � � �� K E .. p.540… + � K … � �� ÿ I E �� �… I � � �� �� 7 1/4 �� � �� @ � � Õþ � � � ‘ .. .. h } ) ª * … Even traits such as cooperative( Ł‚“ * @ �� � � ¥ ‚ J +� B � � � .. B � � � @@ � � ¥¸( + � � ƒ^ô J + p… E � IE � � �� � � � � � … @K … �7 � �� ð E � � � �� … � � ‘ … less self­enhancing biase… ¨ { “ * � � � — more self­effacing … ( � �� � � … E �� � �� B� … *� � ‹ ˙ d 9 � ) B � ��� � � J � � � � @ ????? Ł express this openly.. h}) “ ‚ “* ‹ Ç d 9 superior � �� � � �� — less inclined to … … � ­self­enhancement � ­self –criticism.. � ��� � � �@ E � � � � � � ��7 ¨ {) “ success situation failure situation ¨ { h} “ * � � .. failure situation h}) “ ¨ {) ª self­relevant( �� � factor… ) h } ) success situation ¨ { consider … as self­relevant… consider … self­esteem ( g^ ” * � � ‚ self­ criticism and deflation ¨{) as self­relevant ^ “ �� … ¶ “ * � � .. (self­esteem � � � � � � ‚ ) @ ˆ~T µ ª E – 7 humiliatingD .. @ h Self-presentation Ó þ .. .. @ …….. Culture of Honor-T µ ª ~ˆ … extremely concerned with maintaining their reputation and protecting their honor.. @ lE … s… 2h …. Homicide rate ˆ Honor b¸ þÓ W …. dÇ ¬ = a Óþ T ª ….. .. E @ … Ó s h@ herding K E …s 2h @ …. endorse statement about violence in general… a !!!!!!! approve violence easily… = ƒ ’J ô a -12.2 a | È TµW ª ~ˆ pK ÿI * Ó= = ) µ ª eye witness È È | ªµ W cultureˆT µ ~ lE ` !!! ˆ ~ … lE polite È| ð … µª * 6.1 ….. … minor insultB ªµ … E Tµ … 7 @K @ W .. making sense of people t full range of social situations… @ ?? Ó …. È | T ª reputationb ª ¸ þ W ¬Õ d9 …. a .. how ind exp themselves and others in the ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2011 for the course PSYCH 353 taught by Professor N/a during the Spring '11 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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