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A Simulation of Bonding Effects and Their Impacts on Pedestrian Dynamics

A Simulation of Bonding Effects and Their Impacts on Pedestrian Dynamics

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 11, NO. 1, MARCH 2010 153 A Simulation of Bonding Effects and Their Impacts on Pedestrian Dynamics Song Xu and Henry Been-Lirn Duh, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract —This paper simulates bonding effects inside pedes- trian crowds. Based on the social force model, this paper derives an exponential formulation of the bonding force, as opposed to the repulsive force, and surveys the degree of interpersonal co- hesion under various circumstances. Parameters associated with the model are calibrated by preliminary simulation runs. With the proper simulation environment configuration, the effect of the bonding force is extensively demonstrated. Results show that the bonding force results in pedestrians’ walking speeds being differ- ent from their initial intended ones. Specifically, delays in walking and the overtaking phenomenon, which are empirically observed, are explained using this model. In the zigzag walkway defined in the experiment, up to approximately 4% fewer pedestrians are able to escape in the prescribed time, due to bonding effects. To sum up, the bonding forces cause negative effects on pedestrian evacuation and should be taken into consideration for crowd dynamics research. Index Terms —Bonding force, emergency evacuation, micro- scopic simulation, pedestrian dynamics, social force model. I. I NTRODUCTION T HE ADVENT of modern computers and advanced com- putational techniques has provided a novel perspective in tackling complex system analysis. The passenger flow prob- lems, as a typical complex system, has been investigated for over four decades [1]. The research of passenger flow or pedes- trian flow is complicated, as it involves both the physical and the behavioral characteristics of crowds. Furthermore, it is a recognized fact that physical laws alone are not sufficient to rep- resent pedestrian dynamics. Therefore, experts from physics, applied mathematics, psychology, sociology, etc., have been working on different aspects of the problem [2]. In this paper, a microscopic numerical simulation methodology is focused on, employed, and demonstrated. Passenger flow research partly arose from the study and design of modern transportation systems, featuring a mix of automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians on con- structed pathways. The purpose of a transportation system study is to predict traffic conditions and to guide its design. Rapid transportation development has been calling for the study of traffic dynamics and has led to the establishment of a wide range of methodologies [1]. In nonvehicle passenger flow Manuscript received August 15, 2008; revised June 6, 2009, October 6, 2009, and October 24, 2009. First published November 20, 2009; current version published March 3, 2010. The Associate Editor for this paper was D. Zeng.
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