Chien�s Lecture

Chien�s Lecture - Chiens Lecture 22:02 Chapter 4:...

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Unformatted text preview: Chiens Lecture 22:02 Chapter 4: Genomes, Chromatin, Chromosomes Lecture 2/7 DNA must be copied (replication), preserved (repair), useful (transcription) Genome a collection of genes Salmonella experiment showed DNA/genes are inheritable o One example is a substance present in the pathogenic S strain can transform the non-pathogenic R strain into the S strand and that this change is inherited by subsequent generations of bacteria o Another example is the R strain has been incubated with various classes of biological molecules (such as RNA, DNA, protein, carbs, lipids) purified from the S strain, identifies the substance as DNA Gene-sequence that encodes for a protein; pieces of information Continuous pieces of DNA (starts with ATG, ends with TAA, TGA, or TAG) All regulators, coding and noncoding region, Definitions confusing, there can be overlap Human chromosome 22 Heterochromatin dense region, not readily transcribed 1 % DNA is actually ceding gene sequences transposons retroviral elements, movable sequences one element that makes up the other 99% of DNA genes are marked so its possible to find a singular gene Sequence genomes Sanger method o Use ddNTPs with fluorescent labels Illumina sequencing o Take fragmented DNA, run localized PCR on microscope, get pockets of amplified signals and add fluorescent tags one by one o Took years in the old way but now sequence occurs in about 8 hrs (a whole genome) Replication has very high fidelity, get we are not all alike Looking at genomes, can make ancestral tree comparative genomics what parts of a gene are important? Look at what has been conserved over time Neighboring genomes can give info about functions Look at what it is NOT clear How genomes do change Transposons moveable, causes change Look for multispecies conserved sequences Bursts of changes cause rapid evolution Gene duplication and divergence cause gene complexity-function to evolve o Ex. Evolution of the globin gene- binds oxygen and allows animal survival o heme the oxygen-binding molecule o started as one polypeptide, but diversified into four chain globins that bind oxygen cooperatively o allows oxygen to be carried throughout the body o internal gestation caused a need for fetal hemoglobins tighter binding of oxygen, ensures fetus gets oxygen too how can proteins actually get new functions o ex. Immunoglobins covalently links its domains that has exon each Exon is encoded by genes that the repeated duplication that have evolved Lecture- 2/7...
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Chien�s Lecture - Chiens Lecture 22:02 Chapter 4:...

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