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Unformatted text preview: UNDERGRADUATE COOPERATION PROGRAM Subject code: ENGL 1301 Subject name: Composition 1 HANDOUT 4 Instructor: Tô Minh Thanh, Ph.D. Step 3 : Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence A paragraph should be coherent / have coherence so that the reader can easily follow its main points of discussion (also called supporting points ). “There are four ways to achieve coherence; the first two ways involve repeating key nouns and using pronouns which refer back to key nouns . The third way is to use transitional signals to show how one idea is related to the next. The fourth way to achieve coherence is to arrange your sentences in logical order .” [Oshima and Hogue, 1991: 39] 4. 1 Common Methods of Organization 4. 1.1 Time , or chronological , order It started out as a nice enough day . The weather was unusually warm for the third week in November , so I was in a good mood when my mother dropped me off at school . (1)Everything went as usual that morning ; the classes were boring and nothing exciting was happening . (2) At noon , I went to the cafeteria for lunch . While I was standing in line with my friends , I noticed some of the other students were excited about something . Then a girl in line asked me if I had heard that someone had shot the president . I was surprised at this news ; however , I figured that it was probably just a minor wound . Suddenly , a voice came over the loud speaker announcing the president was dead . There was a hush in the cafeteria . Students stopped eating . No one was moving ; it was as if we were all frozen . (3) That afternoon the teachers did not conduct the classes as usual ; in fact , most of the teachers allowed the students to express their feelings about what had happened . Even my old stodgy English teacher did not conduct class as usual . She did not give us the exam that she had planned for that day . (4) After school I went home . Fortunately , no one was home , for I wanted to be alone . Finally , after three hours of containing my emotions , I began to cry . I was still crying when my mother arrived home . She came into my room , put her arms around me , and said , “This is a sad day for our country . ” Yes , November 22 , 1963 , was a sad day , a tragic day that was the beginning of a long difficult period in American history . 4. 1.2 Logical division of ideas 1 Living aboard a space station in orbit around the earth for months at a time ( Topic ) POSES problems for astronauts’ bodies as well as for their minds ( Con. idea ) . (1) One major problem is maintaining astronauts’ physical health . (1.1) Medical treatment may be days or even weeks away as there may not be a doctor on board . Illness such as appendicitis or ulcers , routinely treated on Earth could be fatal in space because of the delay in getting to a doctor . Furthermore , (1.2) surgery may be impossible because blood would float around inside the operating room...
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- Spring '11