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Unformatted text preview: UNDERGRADUATE COOPERATION PROGRAM HANDOUT 7 Subject code: ENGL 1301 PARAPHRASING ANG SUMMARIZING Subject name: Composition 1 Instructor: Tô Minh Thanh, Ph.D. 7. 1 WRITING A PARAPHRASE 7. 1.1 Paraphrase vs. paraphrases 7. 1.1.1 Paraphrase is “the relationship between a word and a combination of other words with the same meaning. For instance, many people would agree that loud means something like can be heard from far away . Ultimately, the whole project of describing or explaining word-meanings depends on paraphrase because we must use words — or other equivalent symbols — to explain other words.” [Goddard, 1998: 18] 7. 1.1.2 “When asked what a sentence means, people usually provide another sentence that has virtually the same meaning , a paraphrase .” [Peccei, 1999: 3] 7. 1.1.3 “ A sentence which expresses the same proposition as another sentence is a paraphrase of that sentence.” [Hurford and Heasley, 1984: 104] 7. 1.1.4 “ Sentences are paraphrases if they have the same meaning (except possibly for minor differences in emphases).” [Fromkin & Rodman, 1993: 132] Consider the two following sentences: (1) The girl kissed the boy . (2) The boy was kissed by the girl . Although there may be a difference in the emphasis in these two sentences — in the second the emphasis is on what happened to the boy , whereas in the first the emphasis is on what the girl did — the meaning relations between the verb kiss and the two noun phrases the girl and the boy are the same in both cases, and on this basis the two sentences are paraphrases of each other. 7. 1. 2 Giving a paraphrased sentence There are a variety of ways that we could paraphrase a sentence: (1) Change individual words 1(a) Using synonyms: Cats DRINK cream . ⇔ Domestic felines CONSUME the liquid fat of milk . 1(b) Using relational antonyms (also called converses ): I LENT that book to Jim. ⇔ Jim BORROWED that book from me. (2) Change sentence structure : Cats DRINK cream . ⇔ Cream IS DRUNK by cats . (3) Change both individual words and sentence structure : Cats DRINK cream . ⇔ The liquid fat of milk IS DRUNK by domestic felines . 1 To provide a paraphrase we use our knowledge of both the meanings of individual words and of the English grammar. Practice 1 : Identify the way employed to paraphrase the following pairs of sentences . 1(a) The house WAS CONCEALED by the tree . 1(b) The house WAS HIDDEN by the tree . 2(a) The needle is too short . 2(b) The needle is not long enough . 3(a) Some countries have no coastline . 3(b) Not all countries have a coastline . 4(a) Watching television is not a waste of time . 4(b) Watching television is a good way to spend one’s time ....
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course ECON 123 taught by Professor Mrews during the Spring '11 term at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.
- Spring '11