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UNDERGRADUATE COOPERATION PROGRAM HANDOUT 11 Subject code: ENGL 1301 PATTERNS OF ESSAYS Subject name: Composition 1 Instructor: Tô Minh Thanh, Ph.D. PROCESS 11. 1 Describing  a technical process Essay 1 : How a Solar Hot Water System Works A solar hot water system collects and converts solar radiation into usable energy for the pupose of heating water . The use of solar radiation for heating water is an expensive and environmentally responsible substitute for heating by gas or electricity . The main parts of a solar hot water system are a collector , a hot water storage tank , and a distribution system . The main steps  in       the process       of     heating water     by       using the sun’s rays     ( Topic ) are (1) trapping the sun’s energy , (2) heating and storing the hot water , and (3) dispensing the water at points of use . The first step is to capture solar radiation (A) . That is, the sun’s energy must be assorted by a solar heat collector , which is usually built on a south-facing roof . The collector has several layers of material . It has a glass plate and a mental absorber plate , which is painted black to increase its ability to absorb heat . Next to the absorber plate are copper tubes , which are filled with transfer fluid . The tubes are surrounded by foam insulation and aluminum casing to help hold the heat in them . The  process  of trapping the sun’s radiation is as follows . As the sun shines through the glass plate , its thermal energy absorbed by the copper absorber plate . This heat is conducted from the plate to the tubes . The heat from the tubes is then conducted to the fluid flowing through them . After trapping heat from the sun , the second step is to transfer the heat to water which is stored in an insulated tank (B) . The hot fluid from the collector is circulated by a pump through copper coils inside the tank . The heat is conducted by the coils to the water . When the supply of solar radiation is reduced on cloudy days , an auxiliary system can take over . Dispensing the hot water is the final step in  the process . The water flows from the outlet valve through pipes to faucets throughout the house (C) . In summary , the process   of   collecting   and converting   solar energy   for use in a solar hot water system involves three steps   ( Restated Topic ) . First , collectors absorb the sun’s energy, which is then transferred to fluid in copper tubes . These tubes run 1
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the collector to a tank , where the water is heated and stored . Finally , the hot water is disturbed through pipes to wherever it is needed . Although initially expensive to install , solar heating systems are economical in the long run — at least until utility companies figure out how to charge us for sunrise ! 2
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