Sample_preparation_for_X-ray_analysis - SAMPLING & ANALYSIS...

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SAMPLING & ANALYSIS T he use of X-ray analysis in the cement industry has increased considerably in recent years. While X-ray F uorescence (XR±) is the universally accepted standard method for raw material control, X-ray dif- fraction (XRD) is now also proving to be an essential technology in this rapidly evolving industry. ² e in- creased use of XRD has been helped by the development of advanced instrumentation, enabling the method to replace traditional calibration, wet chemical or Bogue methods for quantitative clinker and cement crystalline phase analysis. X-ray analysis enables optimised use of raw materi- als, reduces the energy costs of production and controls product quality, while also providing the necessary level of analysis for alternative raw fuels, such as hazardous waste fuels. ² ese attributes are vital in today’s climate of stringent environmental legislation and rising energy costs. Simple to learn, easy to use ² e key requirements of sample preparation for both XR± and XRD are that samples are homog- enous and representative of the source material. Additionally, the composition of the sample should not be altered before or during the preparation process. ±ortunately, X-ray analysis usually requires only very simple, inexpensive, sample preparation work. Methods are both easy to learn and easy to use. ² erefore, even when the need for good sample preparation is taken into account, X-ray analysis is a much easier and quicker process than almost all other chemical analysis techniques. Sample preparation for XRF ±or high quality XR± analysis in ce- ment production, reproducible sample preparation and a good calibration of the XR± spectrometer are essential. However, this can be di³ cult as there are few suitable reference materials available. ±urthermore, available standards may not have the same mineralogy as local samples, which can lead to inaccurate data. Preparing samples as pressed pellets is widely re- garded as the most e´ ective and economical way of preparing samples for routine control in cement pro- duction. Good sample preparation can minimise two of the major e´ ects that can lead to bad data—particle size and mineralogical e´ ects: Particle size e± ects ² ese arise due to the penetration depth of X-rays. If large, unrepresentative particles are analyzed in the top layer of a sample, X-ray data will provide information about the composition of these large particles, not the overall sample composition.
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course CHEM 55 taught by Professor Ggt during the Spring '11 term at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.

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Sample_preparation_for_X-ray_analysis - SAMPLING & ANALYSIS...

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