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1_carbs_notes - Carbohydrates Chapter 11(material is in...

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Carbohydrates – Chapter 11 (material is in Chapters 9-10 in first edition)
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Glucose is a carbohydrate. α -D-glucose Carbohydrates are poly-hydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Some have cyclic (ring) structures.
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Open form Glucose in solution is mostly “alpha” and “beta”, with just a little “open form”. Notice the carbons are numbered (1 through 6). α -D-glucose β -D-glucose
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α -D-glucose β -D-glucose The “-OH” is a nucleophile, and will attack the carboxylate to make the cyclic structure.
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Other ways of representing glucose. Chair conformation of glucose:
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Hayworth projection of glucose: α -D-glucose
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Fischer projection of glucose: In a Fischer projection, the horizontal lines are assumed to be coming out of the page, and the vertical lines are going into the page. (see example on next slide)
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Fischer projections
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Carbohydrates often have chiral centers: Enantiomers are mirror image pairs that can not be superimposed by rotation.
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Reducing sugars ” contain an aldehyde or ketone group. These are “reducing sugars”. Glucose is a reducing sugar when it is in its open form.
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Some common hexoses .
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Some carbohydrate vocabulary. Epimers - 2 sugars that differ in configuration around just one carbon. Examples of epimers are glucose and galactose.
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Some carbohydrate vocabulary. The “ anomeric carbon ” is the carbon on the aldehyde or ketone that reacts with a hydroxyl group to form the cyclic structure. Hemiacetals & hemiketals - The cyclic form that some sugars can make, when one of the hydroxyl groups reacts with the aldehyde or ketone carbon. The “anomeric carbon” of glucose.
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Some carbohydrate vocabulary. Pyranoses - carbohydrates that form 6 membered rings.
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