2_metab1_notes - Metabolism Metabolism is the chemical...

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Metabolism Metabolism is the chemical reactions taking place in an organism Heterotrophs – use organic carbon as food Autotrophs – use inorganic carbon as food Subtypes of metabolism within cells - Catabolism (complex ==> simple molecules) Anabolism (simple ==> complex molecules)
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Clicker question. Which is an example of an autotroph? A) human B) yeast     C)  plant D) E. coli bacteria
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Why would we want to make ATP? What’s it good for? One goal of metabolism is to make ATP. Useful energy is released when the phosphoanhydride bonds are cleaved.
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Hydrolysis of ATP releases energy. energ y + +
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Some common electrophiles A common nucleophile Hydrolysis of ATP reaction mechanism.
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Hydrolysis of ATP, reaction mechanism.
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One thing that ATP is useful for is providing energy to drive the conformational change in the “motor protein” myosin .
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(Na + /K + transporter uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move ions against a concentration gradient) Also, active transport requires energy, which can be provided by ATP hydrolysis. Active transport can work against a concentration gradient.
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Something else that ATP can be used for: Energy released in ATP hydrolysis can drive chemical reactions that would otherwise be thermodynamically unfavorable. Illustrate this important point with an example.
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Consider a reaction: (not spontaneous) The “coupled reaction” is spontaneous !
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Example: Cells need to produce glucose-6-phosphate from glucose. Why?
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2_metab1_notes - Metabolism Metabolism is the chemical...

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