ch369_sp11_op1_notes - I n human liver cells, where are...

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In human liver cells, where are glycolysis , the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex , and the citric acid cycle located ? A) cytosol cytosol cytosol A) cytosol cytosol mitochondria A) cytosol mitochondria mitochondria A) mitochondria mitochondria mitochondria
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Where does each pathway occur? What is the purpose of the pathway? mitochondria PDC
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PDC TCA cycle Things to know about TCA cycle: Which steps generate CO 2 . What gets produced (CO 2 , NADH, QH 2 , GTP). What gets consumed (acetate units, from pyruvate are oxidized to CO 2 ) NADH NADH NADH QH 2 Q GTP GDP NAD + NAD + NAD + 3C’s 2C’s 4C’s 6C’s 6C’s 5C’s 4C’s 4C’s 4C’s 4C’s
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Regulation of the citric acid cycle The E1 subunit of the big PDC enzyme complex is inhibited by high levels of NADH and acetyl CoA (this would indicate lots of available energy is already present). E1 is also regulated by hormone controlled phosphorylation. Also, several of the enzymes in the citric acid cycle are inhibited by high levels of NADH - (see next page).
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NADH is an inhibitor of the 3 irreversible steps of the TCA cycle.
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In fully oxidizing glucose to CO 2 , 2 ATPs and 2 GTPs were made for each glucose that we started with. This is pathetic! Burning glucose in O 2 should yuield enough energy for much more ATP! Where did the rest of the energy go? It was mostly used to reduce the NAD + to NADH, and also some went to reducing the cofactor Q to QH 2 .
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How much free energy could be released oxidizing NADH with O 2 ? - 219 KJ/mo l How much energy is needed to make ATP ? That’s a lot of free energy released by oxidizing NADH ! Its enough to make over 4 ATP from each NADH ! 50 KJ/mo l
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Now, we just need some way to oxidize NADH and QH 2 with O 2 , and use the energy released to make ATP. This is “ Oxidative phosphorylation ”.
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Oxidative Phosphorylation - Chapter 15 2 ) to make ATP.
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ch369_sp11_op1_notes - I n human liver cells, where are...

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