ch369_sp11_review4_notes

ch369_sp11_review4_notes - Photosynthesis - Chapter 16 (or...

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Plant cells. The little green things are chloroplasts. chloroplast Photosynthesis - Chapter 16 (or 14)
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Chloroplast diagram.
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Photosynthesis includes “ light reactions ” and “ dark reactions ”. Dark reactions use the ATP and NADPH to make carbohydrates and other biomolecules from CO 2 . Light reactions: Energy from sunlight to make ATP and NADPH.
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Photosynthesis wikipedia. Chloroplast “light reactions”
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The dark reactions occur in the chloroplast stroma.
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Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( Rubisco ) catalyzes CO 2 fixation into carbohydrates. Rubisco adds CO 2 to a 5-carbon sugar and cleaves the product into two 3-carbon units. This is part of the “ Calvin cycle ” (next page). 5C’s 3C’ s 3C’ s
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The dark reactions are most active when there is light available.
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Rubisco’s substrate binding site has some difficulty distinguishing between O 2 and CO 2 . Rubisco sometimes fixes O 2 rather than CO 2 !!! This is called the “ oxygenase ” reaction of Rubisco, or photorespiration ”. 2C’ s 3C’ s
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Diagram of the “C4 photosynthesis” CO 2 is fixed to oxaloacetate in mesophyll (surface) cells. CO 2 is released in bundle sheath cells ” that are used to increase the local concentration of CO 2 and make the Rubisco reaction less likely to use O 2
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Biochemistry, photosynthesis & earth history.
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4 x 10 years ago 9 Now first life 3 x 10 years ago 9 2 x 10 years ago 9 1 x 10 years ago 9 significant O 2 in atmosphere earth forms For the first 2 billion years of earth’s history, there was almost no O 2 in the atmosphere.
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course CHEM 369 taught by Professor Hoffman during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas.

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ch369_sp11_review4_notes - Photosynthesis - Chapter 16 (or...

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