Protien Synthesis - Transcription and RNA - Chapter 21 (or...

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“Transcription and RNA” - Chapter 21 (or 19) Replication: DNA ============> copied DNA Transcription: DNA ============> mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, other RNA Translation: mRNA ==============> protein DNA polymerase Ribosome RNA polymerase
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Problem - Given the DNA sequence of the human genome, how do we figure out what the amino acid sequences of all of the human proteins are? This is tricky, since the DNA codes for introns and exons. Solution - Use a sample of mature mRNAs, isolated from cytosol. Use the enzyme “ reverse transcriptase ” to make the double- stranded DNA encoded by the mRNAs. (reverse transcriptase is a viral enzyme that does this trick). DNA made in this way is called “ cDNA ”. This is DNA that does not code for introns. Then use standard DNA sequencing methods to sequence the cDNA. A genetic code table can then be used to figure out the amino acid sequences of the proteins that are coded by the DNA.
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Vocabulary cDNA . The DNA sequences that are the result of using the enzyme “reverse transcriptase” to transcribe a mixture of RNAs into their complementary DNAs. Open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs are DNA sequences that potentially may be transcribed, but the protein products have not yet been identified.
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In eukaryotes - Promoters may not be accessible if they are hidden when the DNA is wrapped around histones (as in a condensed chromatin structure). DNA wrapped around histones in chromatin. Histone protein octomers (yellow). Histone protein acetylation can make promoters more accessible (as in active chromatin).
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Proteins called “ transcription factors ” recognize and bind promoters. Common eukaryotic transcription factors:
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course CHEM 369 taught by Professor Hoffman during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Protien Synthesis - Transcription and RNA - Chapter 21 (or...

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