The Silence Market 1 paper

The Silence Market 1 paper - 1 Exploring Animal Black...

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Exploring Animal Black Market in Brazil and Their Economic Impact Dustin Johnston Sam Houston State University [email protected] Abstract : In this paper we are going to discuss the animal smuggling black market, a market valued an estimated 2 billon dollars per year just within the Brazilian borders, and 20 billion dollars worldwide. This paper is going to demonstrate the economy rules of Benefits vs. Risk apply not only on legitimate business enterprises, but the same rules apply in the underground markets; from Animal smuggling, illicit drugs, others. How incredible rewards make puny laws ineffective to curtail the illegal traffic making police effort expensive and fruitless. These black markets have many perspectives that affect our society with consequences not only in the ecological areas, but also in the economical and social infrastructure of the countries affected by the traffic. Keywords: Endangered Species, Brazil, Black Markets, Animals JEL CODES: N56,Q2, F13, O17, Q17, Q57 1 Introduction According to Allen Campa in a presentation at the Wilson center (2009) about thirty-eight million animals are taken from the Amazon rainforest every year for the purpose of animal trafficking, the biggest contributors being China followed 1
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closely by Brazil with about 10% of the total world wide wildlife trafficking. With about two billion dollars in revenue every year Brazil which is more revenue than all but two of its illegal markets, Clothing and Cocaine (Renctas/Havocscope, 2009). Just a sample of this injustice is seen in the 25,000 primates, 500,000,000 tropical fish and 3,000 jungle cats that are traded every year in the Amazon basin, which is located primarily in Brazil (Laurel Neme). Especially in danger are endangered species whose sell fetches poachers a premium due to the rarity of the respective species. One example of this is the poison arrow frog whose toxin can be harvested humanely but this process is very slow and time consuming. For poachers the same amount of toxin that would take months harvesting takes mere hours if the animal is killed. The United States is the largest importer of these illegal animals, to the tune of about 15 to 25 billion dollars a year (Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark, 2007). In Brazil more than four hundred gangs operate under organized hierarchies to catch and smuggle these animals out of the country. However, the United States isn't solely responsible for this huge market, about 30% of Brazilian citizens have owned or currently own wild animals that are technically illegal to own inside their country, that amounts to about 60 million people (IBOPE, 2006). This enormous market inside of Brazil mostly comprises of various types of song birds and exotic fish and can be seen spanning across boarders into neighboring countries. Brazils second largest black market the clothing black market can be seen overlapping into the animal black market in items like reptile skin boots, feathered headdresses and animal pelts. The reptile skin boots comprise of anywhere from 2
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course MCN 480 taught by Professor Mcnair during the Spring '10 term at Sam Houston State University.

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The Silence Market 1 paper - 1 Exploring Animal Black...

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