50%(2)1 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 7 pages.
oupled with his inadequate transportation caused slow southward movement. This gave Tadeusz Kościuszko, a polish military engineer, theMajor General Benedict ArnoldContinental ArmyGeneral John BurgoyneBritish ArmyGeneral Horatio GatesContinental ArmyThe Battles of Saratoga (September 19, 1777 & October 7, 1777)Battles Background
Order of BattlesColonial Army and Militia (Freeman’s Farm)After petitioning General Gates for several hours, Major General Arnold along with Morgan’s riflemen and Dearborn’s light infantry began advancing north through the dense Massachusetts woods towards the advancing British force. Around 1 p.m., the Colonial troops, having spotted a small British force, quickly used their sharpshooters to pick off all of the British officers and several others before forcing them back to Hamilton’s line. After this hasty pursuit, the American sharpshooters were forced to retreat, regroup, and were shortly joined by Major General Arnold after hearing the gunshots. After repulsing several attacks, German Hessian reinforcements with several six pounders arrived and after several more hours of fighting, the Colonists were forced to fall back under the cover of darkness. Of the 9,000 colonial soldiers in the battle, less than 300 were killed or wounded, during the more than nine hours of combat.Royal British Army (Freeman’s Farm)Having lost the majority of his scouts and having little intelligence General Riedesel was in essence marching blindly through the woods of Massachusetts when he reached a position just north of Saratoga, known as Freeman’s Farm. Several small skirmishes then broke out among the scouting party before sharpshooters killed the majority of his officers. While falling back to the main column of 7,700 men, the advanced party encountered friendly fire, losing several men. Around 3 p.m., after periods of intense fighting and lulls, General Burgoyne sent Hessian Officer Major General Riedesel along with all his men save 500 to turn the tide of battle. This pincer movement succeeded in trapping Morgan before General Arnold made it possible for a retreat. Driving the American forces back, General Burgoyne gained the field of battle after suffering 600 casualties.
Colonial Army and Militia (Bemis Heights)During the second battle of Saratoga, the Colonial Army was positioned in a series of interlocking wood fortifications, which were supported by earthen works and thorn branches and briers. However, instead of staying behind these fortifications, General Gates decided to harass Burgoyne with skirmishers, sharpshooters and light infantry. Burgoyne then retaliated by sending a force of approximately 1,500 men under General Riedesel. Having been relieved of command for arguing with General Gates, General Arnold disobeyed orders and led his men in a counter attack against the British fortifications. After three failed attacks, during one of which the defenses were almost breeched, Arnold was forced to fall back.