Lec 3 - Energy, Enthalpy, & Entropy Rudolf Clausius These...

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1 1 Rudolf Clausius German Physicist 1822 - 1888 Energy, Enthalpy, & Entropy These words come from the Greek. Energy means to put into work . Enthalpy means to put into heat . Entropy means to put into transformation . The concept of entropy was invented by Clausius while researching the transformation of heat (energy) into work. 2 Spontaneous Processes Every process and chemical reaction has a preferred direction, which is called the spontaneous direction. A spontaneous process occurs on its own accord unless restrained in some way. Note: spontaneous does not mean fast. In your notes, write an example of a process or reaction that is spontaneous and one that is not spontaneous.
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2 3 Examples of Spontaneous Processes Sugar and salt dissolve in water. Water freezes in the freezer. Ice melts on the countertop. Water runs downhill. 4 Some chemical reactions are spontaneous, others are not! Baking soda + vinegar carbon dioxide + water Spontaneous, try this at home! Hydrogen + oxygen water Explodes spontaneously if started by tiny spark Don’t try this at home! Nitrogen + oxygen nitrogen oxides Won’t explode spontaneously, even if started by a bolt of lightening!
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3 5 In your notes, write what you think causes the processes or reactions that you identified to be spontaneous or not spontaneous. Why are some chemical reactions spontaneous, and others are not? 6 Maybe only exothermic reactions are spontaneous? Energy is transferred out of the system so
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course CHEM 132 taught by Professor Laceyandhanson during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lec 3 - Energy, Enthalpy, & Entropy Rudolf Clausius These...

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