6 December 2010
The human caudate nucleus is a component of the striatum, along with the
putamen and the globus pallidus.
The striatum is a part of the brain located within the
The human caudate nucleus develops from the location of the tissue from
the neuroblasts from the striatal ridge of the telencephalon. The ectoderm thickens to
become the neural plate while the neural folds rise and fuse to form the neural tube.
neural tube forms the telencephalon, which expands rapidly due to cell proliferation.
Gradually the cells stop divding and differentiate to become neurons and glial cells which
are the main cell components.
During development, as the telencephalon expands, the
hemispheres of the brain are separated and fused.
The corticofugal fibers of the internal
capsule divides the caudate nucleus from the other structures of the corpus striatum.
While the hemispheres of the brain grow posteriorly, the body of the caudate nucleus
forms the tail of the nucleus, following the wall of the lateral ventricle as it, too,
During development, the ectoderm specifically forms the epidermis and the neural
plate which requires signals from the mesoderm germ layer.
At the beginning of
gastrulation, mesodermal cells move through the blastopore and form a layer between the
ectoderm and endoderm germ layers,
becoming the notochord.
The notochord produces
a diffusible signal that allows the ectodermal cells to respond by developing into the
The mesoderm converts the ectoderm into neural tissue.
In order for the caudate nucleus to form normally from the ectoderm, proper
development of the structures are essential in forming the pathways for normal
One question that is applicable to our world today is the affect of drug
abuse on the development of the human caudate nucleus.
It would be interesting to see
the difference in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that psychostimulants have on
the development of the human caudate nucleus.
One question that remains is the reason for the rapid expansion of brain volume.
It is thought to be caused by positive cerebrospinal fluid pressue exerted against the walls
of the neural tube.
The retina arises from the neural tube which is formed by the neuroectoderm.
formed through cranial ectodermal placodes which interact with the neural tube.
gasturation, the mesoderm and endoderm germ layers work together with the ectoderm to
form the lens.
The optic vesicle, extending from the diencephalons, turns into the optic
cup which cells create melanin pigmented retina.
The outer wall of the optic cup forms
the pigment retina, while the inner wall of the optic cup forms the neural retina.
neural retina is formed from the proliferation of inner layer cells which generate glia,
ganglion cells, interneurons, and light-sensitive photoreceptor neurons.
factors, Six3, Pax6, and Rx1, are expressed together in the neural plate which inform the
specific region of the neural ectoderm of becoming the retina.