PSY3204C - CHAPTER1:Statistics&ScientificMethod 12:31:00 I....

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19/05/2011 12:31:00 I. Methods of Acquiring Knowledge A. Authority .  One accepts information as being true because  someone who is supposed to know tells you something is true. B. Rationalism .  This method uses reason alone to arrive at  knowledge. One analyzes a situation and draws logical conclusions based on the  information at hand.  The conclusion is not tested empirically to determine if it is correct. C. Intuition .  This is a sudden insight that springs into consciousness  all at once as a whole. D. Scientific method .  This method uses reasoning and intuition as a  means of formulating an idea of what is true but then relies on objective assessment to  verify or deny the validity of the idea. 1. Idea formed and hypothesis made. 2. Experiment designed. Data collected and analyzed using statistics. 4. Hypothesis confirmed, denied or modified.  II. Scientific Research A. Observational studies .  In this research there is no direct  experimental   manipulation of variables.  This technique employs naturalistic observation  of events in their real world environment. 1. Correlation.  A type of observation where the relationship  between two variables is inferred. 2. Parameter estimation.  This is when an investigator tries to  determine the actual characteristics of the population, based on measuring a subset of  the population.
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B. True experiments.   The investigator attempts to determine if  changes in one variable produce changes in another.  In both observational studies and  true experiments, statistical analysis is usually employed. C. Statistical analysis . 1. Descriptive statistics.  Analysis is conducted to describe the  obtained data. 2. Inferential statistics.  Analysis is conducted to make  inferences about a population using data obtained from the sample.
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19/05/2011 12:31:00 II Mathematical Notation A. The symbols  X  (capital letter  X ) and sometimes  Y  will be used as  symbols to represent variables measured in the study. 1. For example,  X  could stand for age, or height, or IQ in any    given  study. 2. To indicate a specific observation a subscript on  X  will be used;  e.g.,  X 2 would mean the second observation of the  X  variable. B.
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course PSY 3204C taught by Professor Shahramghiasinejad during the Summer '10 term at University of Central Florida.

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PSY3204C - CHAPTER1:Statistics&ScientificMethod 12:31:00 I....

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