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class lecture notes

class lecture notes - Chapter 1 Computers can do many...

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Chapter 1: Computers can do many different jobs because they are programmable o Computer, program, programmer o A program works for a computer, and is designed by a programmer o Without programs a computer cannot do anything Computers can input, store, process, output An Algorithm is to computer science as a recipe is to cooking o Algorithm map to solve a problem A series of instructions to solve a problem o In order for a computer to use an algorithm it has to be written in a language the computer can understand o Before it is written in computer language, the algorithm is simply in a language we can understand All computer systems consist of similar hardware devices and software components. This section provides an overview of standard computer hardware and software organization Hardware - physics components that a computer is made of o 1. CPU Job: fetch instructions, follow instructions, and produce a result Fetch, decode, execute cycle 2 parts: control unit and arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Control unit coordinates all of the computer’s operations ALU performs mathematical operations o 2. Main memory Random access memory (RAM) Temporary storage Holds the sequences of instructions in the programs that are running and the data those programs are using Bit 0 (off or false) 1 (on or true) Everything must be stored using 0’s and 1’s A series of pins in the computer (on or off) tell whether it is a 0 or 1 Simplest type of storage Byte 8 consecutive bits Bytes have addresses, addresses are how they are identified o 3. Secondary storage devices Type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time- even when there is no power to the computer o 4. Input devices Collect from the outside world and put it “into” the computer Mouse, keyboard, scanner o 5. Output devices Send to the outside world Monitor, printer Software - the programs that run on a computer
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o 2 types: 1. Operating systems Set of programs that manages the computer’s hardware devices and controls their processes 2. Application software Programs that make the computer useful to the user Programs that meet the need of a particular group Program - set of instructions a computer follows in order to perform a task or solve a problem Programming language - a special language used to write computer programs o ease the task of programming o high-level language languages that are close to the level of human-readability Algorithm - set of well-defined steps for performing a task or solving a problem A computer can only process instructions written in machine language (a stream of binary numbers) A compiler translates a high level language to machine language o compiling is 3 steps : preprocessor, compiler, linker o compiling results in an executable code Statements written by a programmer are called source code and the file they are saved in is the source file
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class lecture notes - Chapter 1 Computers can do many...

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