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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Applying Anthropology Applied...

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Chapter 4 – Applying Anthropology: Applied Anthropology is one of two dimensions of anthropology, the other being theoretical/academic anthropology. Applied or practical anthropology is the use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, asses, and solve contemporary problems involving human behavior or social and cultural forces, conditions, and contexts. Archeology is applied as well in cultural resource management and historic preservation Biological anthropologists work in public health, nutrition, genetic counseling, substance abuse, epidemiology, aging, and mental illness. Forensic anthropologists work with police, medical examiners, the courts, and international organizations to identify victims of crimes, accidents, wars, and terrorism. Linguistic anthropologists study physician-patient interactions and show how dialect differences influence classroom learning. THE ROLE OF THE APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGIST: Malinowski (1929) proposed that “practical anthropology” should focus on Westernization, the diffusion of European culture into tribal societies. He saw nothing wrong with aiding colonial regimes by studying land tenure and land use, to recommend how much of their land local people should be allowed to keep and how much Europeans should use. After WWII, academic anthropology did most of the growing During the 1950’s and 1960’s, most American anthropologists were college professors, although some still worked in agencies and museums. Modern applied anthropology usually is seen as a helping profession, devoted to assisting local people, as anthropologists speak up for the disenfranchised in the international political arena.
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Anthropologists often face ethical dilemmas; Who does he researcher owe loyalty? What problems are involved in holding firm to the truth? Proper roles for applied anthropologists include (1) identifying needs for change that local people perceive (2) working with those people to design culturally appropriate and socially sensitive change, and (3) protecting local people from harmful policies and projects that threaten them. DEVELOPMENT ANTHROPOLOGY: Development anthropology is that branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development. Equity: Increased equity means reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth. Some types of development projects, particularly irrigation schemes , are more likely than others to widen the disparities, that is, to have a negative equity impact.
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