Chapter 7 - CHAPTER 7 – MAKING A LIVING Adaptive...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7 – MAKING A LIVING: Adaptive Strategies: The anthropologist Yehudi Cohen used the term adaptive strategy (163) to describe a groups system of economic production. • He argued that the most important reason for similarities between two or more unrelated societies is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy. Foraging: Until 100,000 years ago, people everywhere were foragers (hunters and gatherers). • People rely on available natural resources for their subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plants and animals 10,000 – 12,000 years ago, animal domestication began in the Middle East. • Some of the best known foragers are the aborigines of Australia. • Eskimos, and Inuit’s of Alaska and Canada are well-known hunters as well Correlates of Foraging: Typologies, including Cohen’s adaptive strategies, are useful because they suggest correlations – association or covariation between two or more variables. People who subsisted by hunting, gathering, and fishing often lived in band-organized societies. • Their basic social unit, the band (168) , was a small group fewer than a hundred people, all related by kinship or marriage. • One typical characteristic of the foraging life is mobility Cultivation: The three adaptive strategies based on food production in nonindustrial societies are horticulture, agriculture, and pastoralism. Horticulture: According to Cohen, horticulture (169) (also called shifting cultivation) is cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery • Use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks to grow their crops •...
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Chapter 7 - CHAPTER 7 – MAKING A LIVING Adaptive...

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