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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 8 – POL I T ICAL SYSTEMS: Anthropologists and political scientists share an interest in political systems and organization, but the anthropologist approach is global and comparative, and includes non- states as well as states and nation-states usually studies by political scientists. Morin F r ied: Political Organization comprises those portions of social organization that specifically relate to the individuals or groups that manage the affairs of public policy or seek to control the appointment or activities of those individuals or groups. (Page 192) Types and T rends: Elman Service listed four types, or levels, of political organization: • Band – a small kin-based group (all the members are related by kinship or marriage) • T r ibe (193) – had economies based on nonintensive food production (horticulture and pastoralism). A food producing society with rudimentary political structures. • Chiefdom – a form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the t ribe and the state (based on kinship, marriage, descent, age, generation, and gender) • State – a form of sociopolitical organization based on a formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification Bands and T ribes: All foragers now trade with food producers. Most contemporary hunter-gatherers rely on governments and on missionaries for at least part of what they consume. The San (193): San speakers “Bushmen” of South Africa have been influenced by the Bantu speakers (farmers and herders) for 2,000 years and by Europeans for centuries. Edwin Wilmsen argues that many San descend from herders who were pushed into the desert by poverty or oppression. Susan Kent notes a tendency to stereotype foragers, to treat them all alike. Richard Lee embarked on a systematic study of life in the Kalahari and documented many changes. The Inuit (195): The aboriginal Inuit, another group of foragers, provide a good example of methods of settling disputes ( conflict resolution ) in stateless societies....
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This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course ANT 220 taught by Professor Merle during the Fall '09 term at Wayne State University.
- Fall '09