Chapter 9 - CHAPTER 9 GENDER Sex and Gender Questions about...

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CHAPTER 9 – GENDER: Sex and Gender: Questions about nature and nurture emerge in the discussion of human sex-gender roles and sexuality. Women: XX chromosomes / Men: XY chromosomes Sexual dimorphism (222) refers to differences between male and female biology besides the contrast of breasts and genitals. Sex differences are biological, but gender encompasses all the traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females. “Gender” refers to the cultural construction of whether one is female, male, or something else. Susan Bourque and Kay Warren note that the same images of masculinity and femininity do not always apply. Gender roles are the tasks and activities a culture assigns to the sexes. Gender stereotypes , which are oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females. Gender stratification describes an unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, human rights, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in social hierarchy. Ann Stoler: the “economic determinates of gender status” include freedom or autonomy (in disposing the one’s labor and its fruits) and social power (control over the lives, and produce of others). Recurrent Gender Patterns: Data relevant to cross-cultural study of gender can be drawn from the domains of economics, politics, domestic activity, kinship, and marriage. The Hidatsa: a Native American group in which the woman made the boats used to cross the Missouri
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Chapter 9 - CHAPTER 9 GENDER Sex and Gender Questions about...

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