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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Religion What is Religion Anthony F...

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Chapter 12 – Religion: What is Religion? Anthony F. C. Wallace: “ religion (295) is belief and ritual concern with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.” Emile Durkheim stressed religious effervescence , the bubbling up of collective emotional intensity generated by worship. Victor Turner used the term communitas , an intense community spirit , a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness. Origins, Functions, and Expressions of Religion: There are suggestions of religion in Neandertal burials and on European cave walls, where painted stick figures may represent shamans, early religious specialists. The founder of the anthropology of religion was Sir Edward Burnett Tylor. Attempts to explain dreams and trances led early humans to believe that two entities inhabit the body; one active during the day and the other – a double or soul – active during sleep Death is the departure of the soul Animism (296): the earliest form of religion – a belief in spiritual beings Animism, then polytheism, then monotheism Mana : a sacred impersonal force existing in the universe (Melanesia and Polynesia) Taboo (297) : Sacred and forbidden; prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
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  • Fall '09
  • Merle
  • supernatural beings, Handsome Lake religion, sacred impersonal force, Religion and Cultural Ecology, Chinese Traditional Religion

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