February 10 - Limiting resource March-08-11 9:54 AM 1....

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Limits to growth and other system's models 1. What are human resources / limiting factors and how do they affect population growth? (main limiting factors) A. Food ** (multiple types) - Water (quality restrictions) - Shelter (depends on harshness of environment) - Energy & material (technological support) - Non-resource limiting factors Disease & aggression - cooperation, division of labor Gives more efficient exploitation of more basic resources cultural knowledge (super knowledge) Positive social interactions Various processes used by humans to expand these limits put on population growth - Not exactly known as death occur by multiple resources; birth largely determined by other than limiting factors (energy may be correlated) Limiting resources interact with each other Which effects actual birth / death rates? Human growth? - Food depends on water B. Drinking water Growing agriculture & livestock Industry & manufacturing Personal cleaning & waste disposal Transportation Water = essential resources with multiple use - Figuring out how usese of water to food production is very difficult to determine - Locally water used for agriculture. Globally, expansion of agriculture effects hydrological cycle Affect future climate and hydrological cycle Expansion of human population affects forests (cutting) and ocean phytoplankton (ozone depletion & acidification) Better transportation and technology allow spatial transfers of water --> increase of food supply Other interaction of water & food - Humans get food directly from plant or indirectly from animals, subsystems, fossil fuels, geothermal, etc. Limiting resource March-08-11 9:54 AM February 10 Page 1
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Energy correlates with death rates better than other limiting resources. This is due to correlation with wealth and per capita consumption. Countries with more wealth use more energy. "r" above 0.7 is very unusual. Life expectancy shows tight relationship Interaction of water and energy C. Cause thermal pollution Water used to produce hydroelectric energy & cooling for power plants - Water used in mining to extract fossil fuels - Water usage itself requires energy (pumping) - Using energy affects global climate (increasing CO2) & alter hydrological cycle - Resources (especially energy) has significant effect on the global climate. - February 10 Page 2
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Neither resources nor their interactions are used for population projections by UN or government agencies (cohort method). What does this mean? D. Climate change have larger effect on population growth than expected Resources may have effect on long-term projections - More long-term forecasts more likely to be inaccurate due to resource limitations - Connections sufficiently complicated that distant futures hard to predict - Interaction of resources means more possibility of conflict / aggression over land / water
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February 10 - Limiting resource March-08-11 9:54 AM 1....

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