lecture 8 - Section II Diversity of vascular plants,...

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Unformatted text preview: Section II Diversity of vascular plants, photosynthesis and respiration Session 7 Bryophytes, Vascular Plants Session 8 Flowering Plants Session 9 Photosynthesis Session 10 C4 photosynthesis and Respiration Session 11 Mineral nutrition Session 12 Plant tissues Spores vs. Seeds Spores (algae, bryophytes and ferns) Single celled Can be haploid or diploid in algae, but are haploid in land plants Small food reserve Must grow into a new plant that then produces gametes Wind or water dispersed Seeds (gymnosperms and angiosperms) Multicellular Contains an entire new individual plant (the baby plant or embryo) Has a sizable food reserve Enclosed in a hard wall, the seed coat Dispersed by wind, water and animals Spores vs. Seeds Pine seed Moss spore diploid haploid haploid http://www.carolina.com/nav/p/category/life+science/dvds+and+videos.do?s ortby=ourPicks&page=10 Life cycle videos The Most Diverse and Successful of All Plant Groups About 250,000 species Highly diverse life forms trees, shrubs, herbs, even marine plants First evolved in the Cretaceous period about 140 million years ago Most species arose in the past 50 million years Highly efficient and adaptable reproductive system consisting of flowers and fruits. The Flowering Plants 500 420 395 345 280 225 195 135 65 Carboniferous Ordovician Silurian Devonian Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary First Roots First Leaves First Trees Ages of Dinosaurs Geological Period First seeds First Vascular tissues Million years ago Green Algae Dicots Monocots First flowers and fruits Angiosperms (flowering plants) Gymnosperms Lower Vascular Plants Bryophytes seed ferns Coal swamps Seed Plants Horsetails Lycophytes Rhynia Zosterophytes First Land Plants Age of mammals Time before present, million years 20 40 60 80 100 Number of angiosperm families 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Annual angioserms become common Perennial angiosperms herbs become common Cretaceous Tertiary Grasses Sunflower family Magnoliids Snapdragon family Pea family The Age of Mammals Dinosaur extinction Families In the fossil record The Rise of the Angiosperms Climate and atmospheric change in the past 70 Mya Time before present, Million years ago 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1 2 3 4 5 18 O ( o / oo ) Inferred atmospheric CO 2 , ppm 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 Inferred temperature, C 10 8 4 Eocene Paleocene Oligocene Miocene grasslands expand Ice ages Warm, moist climate Cool, dry climate Adapted from Zachos et al. (2001) Science 292:686-693 Climate cooling Temperature response CO 2 response Evolution of the Angiosperms It is not exactly clear which group of gymnosperm plants are the ancestors of the angiosperms....
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lecture 8 - Section II Diversity of vascular plants,...

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