Lecture2-January+7th-Thinking+like+scientists

Lecture2-January+7th-Thinking+like+scientists -  

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Unformatted text preview:   First
online
tutorial
QUIZ
due
TOMORROW
by
 11.59
pm
   Quiz
will
no
longer
be
available
after
deadline
   Complete
it
on
time!
   E‐mailed
quiz
from
tutorial
website
are
NOT
 accepted
   NEXT
WEEK’s
deadlines
   TUESDAY:
Second
online
tutorial
QUIZ
due
before
 class
(1.40
pm)
   THURSDAY:
First
exercise
due
IN
CLASS
 What
makes
Psychology
a
science?
   Of
all
the
disciplines,
psychology
is
one
 explicitly
concerned
with
understanding
the
 way
people
behave,
feel,
and
think
   Many
of
the
themes
that
have
characterized
 intellectual
inquiry
over
the
years
are
studied
 by
psychologists
   free
will
and
determinism
   nature
and
nurture
   love
and
loss
   relationships
and
emotion
   personality
(growth
and
disorder)
   So,
what
is
special
about
psychology,
as
 opposed
to
the
study
of
philosophy,
 literature,
or
history?
   Modern
psychology
is
based
on
the
 SCIENTIFIC
METHOD
 PSYCHOLOGY
 The
 “themes”
 Philosophy
 &
 Humanities
 Like
the
humanities,
 deals
with
fundamental
 issues
concerning
 human
experience.


 The
 “methods”
 Natural
 But…
we
use
the
methods
 Sciences
 of
natural
sciences
to
 understand
psychological
 phenomena.

   Why
do
we
need
the
scientific
method
to
 study
the
human
mind?
   Other
methods
we
tend
to
use
are
subject
to
 severe
limitations!!!!!
   The
objectives
of
this
course
are

   Illustrate
some
of
the
limitations
of
non‐scientific
 approaches
to
understanding
psychology
   Teach
you
how
to
use
the
scientific
method
as
it
 applies
to
psychology
   Promote
your
ability
to
think
critically
about
 psychological
research
(and
everything
else
:)
   Sources
of
knowledge
   Limitation
of
non‐scientific
approach
   The
scientific
method
   Science
vs.
Pseudo‐science
   Goals
of
science
   Where
do
we
get
our
knowledge
from?
   Personal
experience

   Authority
   These
methods
are
subject
to
severe
limitations!
   What
are
the
limitations?
   Sources
of
knowledge
   Limitation
of
non‐scientific
approach
   The
scientific
method
   Science
vs.
Pseudo‐science
   Goals
of
science
   1.
The
Confirmation
Bias
and
the
 Discounting
Problem.

   We
tend
to
seek
out
information
that
is
 consistent
with
our
expectations
and
 discount
information
that
is
inconsistent
with
 those
expectations.
   2.
The
Limited
Data
Problem.

   We
tend
to
make
inferences
on
the
basis
of
 very
little
information
   3.
The
Expectations
Problem.

   Our
expectations
tend
to
influence
the
way
 we
interpret
events.
   4.

The
Baserate/Comparison
Group
 Problem.
   
We
tend
to
overlook
the
fact
that
inferences
 about
contingencies
require
some
kind
of
 comparison
or
standard.
   5.

The
Pleasant
Truth
Problem.

   We
tend
to
believe
things
that
make
us
feel
 good
(i.e.,
things
that
seem
right).
 What
we
tend
to
believe

 Reality
 False 
 Pleasant
 Falsehoods
 Pleasant
Truths
 Feeling
 Feels
 Good
 True 
 Feels
Bad
 Unpleasant
 Falsehoods
 Unpleasant
 Truths
 What
we
need
to
believe
 to
be
correct
 False
 Pleasant
 Falsehoods
 True 
 Pleasant
Truths
 Feeling
 Feels
 Good
 Reality
 Feels
Bad
 Unpleasant
 Falsehoods
 Unpleasant
 Truths
   People
tend
to
gather
information
not
I
a
very
 systematic
way
   we
tend
to
seek
information
that
is
consistent
with
 our
beliefs
and
ignore
inconsistent
information
   we
tend
to
base
our
inferences
on
little
information
   our
expectations
tend
to
influence
what
we
see
   we’re
not
attentive
to
base
rates
and
comparisons
   we
tend
to
assume
that
propositions
that
feel
wrong
 to
us
are
invalid
   These
factors
can
lead
to
two
problems
 for
developing
an
accurate
 understanding
of
the
world.
   They
can
lead
us
to
the
wrong
answer.
   The
process
is
not
self‐correcting.
   People
seeking
to
answer
different
questions
 recall
different
kinds
of
information
   People
come
to
different
conclusions
based
 on
the
question
they
sought
to
answer.
   The
confirmation
bias
ensures
that,
once
an
 expectation
or
theory
has
been
developed,
 the
belief
will
be
self‐perpetuating.
 Is
Josh
extraverted?
 We
conclude
 that
Josh
is
 extraverted
 We
then
recall
extraverted‐ consistent
information
better,
 and
fail
to
notice
introverted
 information
   So,
what
we
want

   are
methods
that
are
more
likely
to
lead
us
to
the
 right
answer
   a
process
for
understanding
the
world
that
will
 enable
us
to
correct
the
inevitable
mistakes
that
 we
will
make
   Sources
of
knowledge
   Limitation
of
personal
experience
   The
scientific
method
   Science
vs.
Pseudo‐science
   Goals
of
science
   The
scientific
method
is
a
way
of
dealing
with
 these
concerns.
 theory
about
 how
something
 works
 generate
 predictions

 testing:
 comparing
the
 observations
 with
the
theory
 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
 to
observe?)
 systematic
 empirical
 observations
   Science
is
the
process
of
constructing,
testing,
 and
refining
theories
about
natural
phenomena
 though
the
use
of
systematic
empirical
 observation.
 theory
about
 how
something
 works
 generate
predictions
 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
to
 observe?)
 testing:
 comparing
the
 observations
 with
the
theory
 systematic
 empirical
 observations
   Systematic
   ALL
information
counts
 ▪  Regardless
of
whether
it
is
consistent
or
inconsistent
with
 one’s
assumptions
or
how
it
makes
us
feel.
   Attending
to
base
rates,
collecting
a
sufficient
 amount
of
information,
recognizing
and
correcting
 for
potential
biases.
   Trying
to
be
as
true
as
possible
to
what
really
 happens
in
the
world!!!!!.
 theory
about
how
 something
works
 testing:
comparing
 the
observations
 with
the
theory
 ensures
that
inconsistent
 observations
will
be
 recorded
 systematic
 empirical
 observations
 generating
 predictions

 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
to
 observe?)
 theory
about
how
 something
works
 testing:
comparing
 the
observations
 with
the
theory
 ensures
that
 inconsistent
 observations
will
be
 counted
against
the
 theory
 systematic
empirical
 observations
 generating
 predictions

 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
to
 observe?)
 theory
about
how
 something
works
 testing:
comparing
 the
observations
 with
the
theory
 theory
is
revised
in
 light
of
the
tests,
and,
 hopefully,
becomes
 more
accurate
 systematic
empirical
 observations
 generating
 predictions

 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
to
 observe?)
   Science
is
a
process
for
understanding
the
 world
NOT
a
topic
   Phenomena
can
be
studied
in
scientific
ways
 or
in
non‐scientific
ways
(chemistry
vs.
 alchemy).
   Sources
of
knowledge
   Limitation
of
personal
experience
   The
scientific
method
   Science
vs.
Pseudo‐science
   Goals
of
science
   A
large
amount
of
“psychology”
is
non‐ scientific.
   Nonscientific
“self‐help”
books
are
featured
 predominantly
in
the
psychology
section
of
 bookstores
   Over
400
distinct
kinds
of
psychotherapy
 (including
equine
therapy)
   Subliminal
tapes
are
available
to
improve
your
 memory
or
to
help
you
lose
weight

   Scientific
inquiry
should
be
accompanied
by
a
 “scientific
attitude”
   excitement
about
discovery
   willingness
to
prove
oneself
wrong
   mixture
of
skepticism
and
open‐mindedness
   What
does
the
person
do
with
information
 that
is
inconsistent
with
his
or
her
 expectations?

   Some
signs
that
the
“science”
may
not
 be
good
science
   Failures
are
rationalized
or
explained
way
   Reliance
on
anecdotes
   Lack
of
tests
   Lack
of
supporting
evidence
   What
makes
“
good
science”
   Skepticism
   Systematic
Empiricism
   Public
Verification
(peer‐review
process)
   Solvable
problems
(falsifiability)
   People
using
the
scientific
method
are
not
 immune
to
bias!!!
   The
scientific
process
is
an
ideal
   The
burden
is
on
you
to
be
able
to
separate
 good
science
from
pseudo‐science!
   Hopefully
this
course
will
give
you
tools
to
reach
 this
goal!


   Sources
of
knowledge
   Limitation
of
personal
experience
   The
scientific
method
   Science
vs.
Pseudo‐science
   Goals
of
science
   Description
   First
step!
Observation
and
description
of
 phenomena.
Allows
us
to
notice
and
record
 contingencies,
regularities
etc.
   Prediction
   Identifying
factors
that
indicate
occurrence
(or
not)
of
 a
certain
behavior
   Explanation
   Identifying
the
CAUSES
of
behavior.
Entails
 manipulation
of
factor
thought
to
cause
the
behavior
   Description
   Observational
 ▪  Naturalistic
vs
Laboratory
   Case
Study
 ▪  Freud,
Piaget,
and
Psychobiographies
   Survey
 ▪  Market
Research
 ▪  Social/Personality
Studies
 ▪  Attitudes
and
Opinions
   Prediction
   Correlational
studies:
Relationship
between
 two
variables
 ▪  Positive
 ▪  Negative
 ▪  Curvilinear
 ▪  None
   Prediction
   Disadvantage:
there
may
be
alternative
 explanations
 ▪  Third
variable
problem
   Correlation
DOES
NOT
imply
causation
   Explanation
   Experimental
studies
 ▪  Independent
Variable
 ▪  Random
Assignment
 ▪  Manipulation
of
variable
 ▪  Control
versus
Experimental
 ▪  Dependent
Variable
 High
level
of
control.
Allows
for
causal
 inferences
 theory
about
 how
 something
 works
 testing:
comparing
 the
observations
 with
the
theory
 generate
predictions

 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
to
 observe?)
 systematic
empirical
 observations
   Theory
about
how
something
work
   Finding
a
research
question!
 ▪  We’ll
discuss
this
on
Tuesday
   Remember:
   1st
tutorial
quiz
due
TOMORROW
   2nd
tutorial
quiz
due
on
TUESDAY
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/21/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY Psych 41 taught by Professor Castelli during the Winter '10 term at UC Davis.

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