Lecture3-Jan+12th-Starting+the+research+process

Lecture3-Jan+12th-Starting+the+research+process -  ...

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Unformatted text preview:   Quiz
2
due
today
   Late
quizzes
are
NOT
accepted
   Emailed
tutorials
are
NOT
accepted
   Exercise
1
due
Thursday,
beginning
of
class
   Print
answer
sheet
only
   Allison
will
be
your
grader
 ▪  If
you
want
to
discuss
your
grade
or
see
the
grading
for
 Exercise
1,
go
to
her
office
hours
or
make
an
appointment
   Next
week
deadlines
   Tuesday,
jan
19th
=
Tutorial/Quiz
3
   Thursday,
jan
21st
=
Tutorial/Quiz
4
+
Exercise
2
   Plan
ahead!
   How
do
we
go
about
conducting
research
in
 psychology?
 testing:
 comparing
the
 observations
 with
the
theory
 theory
 about
how
 something
 works
 generate
 predictions

 (what
would
the
 theory
lead
you
 to
observe?)
 systematic
 empirical
 observations
   Start
with
a
research
question!!!
   How
do
we
find
it?
   Getting
ideas
for
a
study
   Type
of
sources
   How
to
conduct
a
Literature
search
   Structure
of
empirical
articles
   Ethical
issues
in
conducting
psychological
 research
 Main
starting
points:
 1.  Theory
 2.  Practical
need
 3.  Observations
   Theory
   Explain,
Organize,
&
Predict
   Broad
   Relevant
   Practical
need
   

Applied
research
(vs.
basic
research)
   Observations
   Unsystematic
observations:
Anecdotes
   Systematic
observations:
literature

search
of
 previous
studies
   Goals
   Get
more
knowledge
about
the
specific
topic
   Be
familiar
with
current
research
   Help
in
extending
research
further
 ▪  In
forming
hypotheses
for
your
own
research
   What
kind
of
sources
can
we
access?
   Primary
   Firsthand
report
from
the
ones
 who
conducted
the
study
 ▪  Empirical
journal
articles
 ▪  Theses
&
dissertations
 ▪  Conference
presentations
of
 research
results
   Secondary
   Secondhand
report
by
someone
who
 did
not
conduct
the
study
 ▪  Books
and
textbooks
 ▪  Literature
review
articles
   Electronic
databases
   Harvest

 ▪  UCDavis‐only
catalog
   Melvyl

 ▪  UC
system‐wide
catalog
   Discipline
specific
databases
 ▪  Pubmed
(medicine)
 ▪  Eric
(education)
 ▪  PsycINFO
(psychology)
   Start
from:
www.lib.ucdavis.edu
   Click
on
Harvest
catalog
   Either
type
in
 ‘psycInfo’
in
the
space
 and
click
search
 psycinfo
   Or
press
‘p’
and
scroll
 down
on
the
next
page
 to
click
on
‘psycInfo’
         Can
add
new
keywords
 Can
select
specific
author/s
 Can
select
a
specific
population
(children
vs.
adults)
 Can
select
specific
type
of
publication
   Empirical
vs.
review
paper
   Can
select
specific
year
range

   Only
papers
published
in
past
10
years
   Results
reduced
to
72
   6
Main
parts
   Abstract
   Introduction
   Methods
   Results
   Discussion
   References
   Abstract
   180
words
summary
(may
vary)
   Overview
of
the
article
   Not
a
substitute
for
reading
the
entire
article

   Children
aged
7
and
younger
encounter
great
difficulty
in
assessing
whether
 lack
of
memory
for
an
event
indicates
that
the
event
was
not
experienced.
 The
present
research
investigated
whether
this
difficulty
results
from
a
 general
inability
to
evaluate
memory
absence
or
from
a
specific
inability
to
 monitor
one
feature
of
memory
absence
that
has
been
examined
in
previous
 studies,
namely
expected
memorability.
Seven‐,
8‐
and
9‐year‐olds,
and
 adults
(n
=
72)
enacted,
imagined
and
confabulated
about
bizarre
and
 common
actions.
Two
weeks
later,
participants
were
asked
to
recognize
the
 actions
that
had
been
enacted
1
.
Even
7‐year‐olds
monitored
the
relative
 familiarity
of
rejected
distracters
(i.e.
reported
higher
confidence
for
the
 rejection
of
novel
versus
imagined
and
confabulated
distracters).
However,
 only
older
children
and
adults
exhibited
the
ability
to
monitor
expected
 memorability
(e.g.
reported
higher
confidence
for
the
rejection
of
bizarre
 versus
common
distracters).
These
results
suggest
that
young
children
 exhibit
specific,
rather
than
general,
deficits
in
monitoring
memory
absence,
 and
provide
an
indication
of
the
specific
domains
in
which
lack‐of‐memory
 monitoring
improves
during
childhood.
   Introduction
   Theoretical
background
   Previous
research
on
the
topic
   Rational
for
current
study
   Predictions
(research
hypotheses)
   Methods
   Participants
   Materials
   Procedures
   Should
provide
enough
details
to
allow
for
 replication
   Methods
   Participants
 ▪  Recruitment
(sampling)
 ▪  Characteristics
   Materials
 ▪  Questionnaires
&
other
instruments
 ▪  Equipment
 ▪  Computer
programs
   Procedures
 ▪  The
study
design
   Results
   What
happened?
   What
were
the
statistical
analyses?
   Discussion
   Interpretation
of
results
 ▪  Main
findings
 ▪  Relate
to
theory
 ▪  Relate
to
previous
research
findings
 ▪  Explain
unpredicted
results
   Limitations
   Future
directions
   Implications
   Addressing
a
topic
with
scarce
lit
background
 can
lead
to
exciting
and
new
discoveries…
   Or
most
likely
just
frustration

   When
did
concern
arise?
   Explicit
guidelines
for
conducting
psych
research
 did
not
emerge
until
early
1970s
   Where
did
it
come
from?
   2
main
events
outside
the
field
of
psychology
 1.  Nuremberg
code
 Response
to
research
on
Jewish
prisoners
of
 concentration
camp
by
Nazi
scientist
during
World
 War
II
   Guidelines
for
conducting
medical
 experimentation
on
human
beings
   ▪  ▪  ▪  Voluntary
consent
 Avoid
unnecessary
harm
 Evaluate
cost/benefit
ratio
 2.  Belmont
Report,
1979
 Result
of
infamous
Tuskegee
Syphilis
Study
 1932‐1972
   ▪  ▪  ▪  Recruited
poor
African
American
men
for
health
 check‐ups
 Did
not
disclose
diagnose
in
order
to
follow
 progression
of
disease
when
untreated
 Withhold
penicillin
treatment
after
discovery
in
1947

 Belmont
Report,
1979
 2.  Three
principles
   ▪  ▪  ▪    Respect
for
person
(informed
consent)
 Beneficence
(minimize
risks,
maximize
benefits)
 Justice
(fair
sample
selection
procedures)
 Establishment
of
OHRP
and
creation
of
IRB
 Controversial
studies
in
Psychology
   Milgram’s
“Obedience”
experiment
(1963)
   Zimbardo’s

“Stanford
prison”
study
(1971)
   Loftus’s
“Lost
in
the
Mall”
study
(1995)
     Guidelines
that
help
researchers
protect
the
 rights
of
participants
   Minimize
physical
and
psychological
harm
   Cost‐Benefit
Analysis
 Brain
injury
as
a
result
of
 repeated
blows
to
the
heads
 Sexual
behavior
 Effectiveness
of
coping
 strategies
to
deal
with
fear
of
 supernatural
creatures
 Physical
harm
?!
 Privacy?!
 Psychological
 harm?!
   IRB‐
Internal
review
board
   The
final
responsibility
lies
within
the
 researcher!!!
   Follow
APA
code
of
conduct
 Recruitment
   UC
Davis
Psychology
researchers
are
recruiting
participants
 for
a
study!
   ▪  We
are
inviting
5,
7,
and
9
year‐old
children
and
their
parents
to
be
 part
of
one
of
our
studies.
The
study
will
involve
just
a
little
of
your
 time,
and
your
participation
will
be
compensated
with
$10.
If
you
 would
like
to
find
out
more
about
the
study,
please
call

XXXX.
They
 will
be
happy
to
provide
you
with
more
details
about
the
study.
 ▪  We
are
inviting
7
and
9
year‐old
children
and
their
parents
to
be
part
 of
one
of
our
studies.
The
study
will
involve
two
visits
to
XXXXXX,
 and
your
participation
will
be
compensated
with
$25.
If
you
would
 like
to
find
out
more
about
the
study,
please
call
XXXX.
They
will
be
 happy
to
provide
you
with
more
details
about
the
study.
 Recruitment

 Informed
consent
     Description
of
risk/benefit
   Confidentiality
   Right
to
withdraw
   Recruitment

 Informed
consent
     Description
of
risk/benefit
   Confidentiality
   Right
to
withdraw
     Debriefing
   Deception
   Active=deception
by
commission
 ▪  Experimenter
deliberately
misleads
   Passive=deception
by
omission
 ▪  Certain
information
is
withheld
   Deception
   Informing
PP
of
real
study
aim
may
introduce
 confounds
in
study
   PP
may
behave
differently
 ▪  Milgram’s
study
 ▪  Helping
behavior
 ▪  Memory
tests
   Use
of
deception
needs
to
be
approved!
   Plagiarism
   Using
someone
else’s
words,
thoughts,
or
work,
 without
giving
proper
credit
   Fabrication
of
data
   The
lure
of
significant
results
   Defining,
measuring,
manipulating
variables
   DO
NOT
FORGET:
   Exercise
1
due
IN
CLASS
on
Thursday!
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/21/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY Psych 41 taught by Professor Castelli during the Winter '10 term at UC Davis.

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