Lecture4-January+14th-Generating+hypotheses

Lecture4-January+14th-Generating+hypotheses -  ...

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Unformatted text preview:   Exercise
1
due
NOW
   Make
sure
your
name
and
student
ID
is
on
it
before
 you
turn
it
in
   Allison
will
be
your
grader
 ▪  If
you
want
to
discuss
your
grade
or
see
the
grading
for
 Exercise
1,
go
to
her
office
hours
or
make
an
appointment
   Next
week
deadlines
   Tuesday,
jan
19th
=
Tutorial/Quiz
3
   Thursday,
jan
21st
=
Tutorial/Quiz
4
+
Exercise
2
   Getting
ideas
for
a
study
   Type
of
sources
   How
to
conduct
a
Literature
search
   Structure
of
empirical
articles
   Ethical
issues
in
conducting
psychological
 research
   When
did
concern
arise?
   Explicit
guidelines
for
conducting
psych
research
 did
not
emerge
until
early
1970s
   Where
did
it
come
from?
   2
main
events
outside
the
field
of
psychology
 ▪  Nuremberg
Code
 ▪  Belmont
Report
 Controversial
studies
in
Psychology
   Milgram’s
“Obedience”
experiment
(1963)
   Zimbardo’s

“Stanford
prison”
study
(1971)
   Loftus’s
“Lost
in
the
Mall”
study
(1995)
     Guidelines
that
help
researchers
protect
the
 rights
of
participants
   Minimize
physical
and
psychological
harm
   Cost‐Benefit
Analysis
 Brain
injury
as
a
result
of
 repeated
blows
to
the
heads
 Sexual
behavior
 Effectiveness
of
coping
 strategies
to
deal
with
fear
of
 supernatural
creatures
 Physical
harm
?!
 Privacy?!
 Psychological
 harm?!
   IRB‐
Internal
review
board
   The
final
responsibility
lies
within
the
 researcher!!!
   Follow
APA
code
of
conduct
 Recruitment
   UC
Davis
Psychology
researchers
are
recruiting
participants
 for
a
study!
   ▪  We
are
inviting
5,
7,
and
9
year‐old
children
and
their
parents
to
be
 part
of
one
of
our
studies.
The
study
will
involve
just
a
little
of
your
 time,
and
your
participation
will
be
compensated
with
$10.
If
you
 would
like
to
find
out
more
about
the
study,
please
call

XXXX.
They
 will
be
happy
to
provide
you
with
more
details
about
the
study.
 ▪  We
are
inviting
7
and
9
year‐old
children
and
their
parents
to
be
part
 of
one
of
our
studies.
The
study
will
involve
two
visits
to
XXXXXX,
 and
your
participation
will
be
compensated
with
$25.
If
you
would
 like
to
find
out
more
about
the
study,
please
call
XXXX.
They
will
be
 happy
to
provide
you
with
more
details
about
the
study.
 Recruitment

 Informed
consent
     Description
of
risk/benefit
   Confidentiality
   Right
to
withdraw
   Recruitment

 Informed
consent
     Description
of
risk/benefit
   Confidentiality
   Right
to
withdraw
     Debriefing
   Deception
   Active=deception
by
commission
 ▪  Experimenter
deliberately
misleads
   Passive=deception
by
omission
 ▪  Certain
information
is
withheld
   Deception
   Informing
PP
of
real
study
aim
may
introduce
 confounds
in
study
   PP
may
behave
differently
 ▪  Milgram’s
study
 ▪  Helping
behavior
 ▪  Memory
tests
   Use
of
deception
needs
to
be
approved!
   From
the
researcher’s
side:
   Plagiarism
 ▪  Using
someone
else’s
words,
thoughts,
or
work,
 without
giving
proper
credit
   Fabrication
of
data
 ▪  Hendrik
Schön,
former
researcher
at
Bell
Labs
 ▪  2000‐2001
published
13
paper
in
Nature
and
Science
only!!!
 ▪  The
lure
of
significant
results
   Once
we
found
our
research
question…
 theory
about
how
 something
works
 generate
 predictions

 testing:
comparing
the
 observations
with
the
 theory
 (what
would
the
theory
 lead
you
to
observe?)
 systematic
empirical
 observations
   Generating
Hypothesis
   Characteristics
of
Hypotheses
   Defining
variables
   Setting
up
a
study
   Research
hypothesis
=
Testable
 prediction
   Specific
   Falsifiable
   Characteristics
of
hypotheses:
   Descriptive
 ▪  Testable ▪  Formal statement of a predicted observation ▪  Does not explain the phenomenon   Causal ▪  Explains possible cause for the pattern stated in the descriptive hypothesis. ▪  Involves how variable 1 will affect variable 2
   Characteristics
of
hypotheses:
   Descriptive
vs.
Causal
   Directional

 ▪  Specifies
direction
of
effect
   Non‐directional
 ▪  Does
not
predict
direction
of
effect
   Choice
of
directional
vs.
non‐directional
depends
on
 previous
research,
theory
etc.
   Once
we
have
our
prediction…
 theory
about
how
 something
works
 generate
 predictions

 testing:
comparing
the
 observations
with
the
 theory
 (what
would
the
theory
 lead
you
to
observe?)
 systematic
empirical
 observations
   Generating
Hypothesis
   Characteristics
of
Hypotheses
   Defining
variables:
operational
definitions
   Setting
up
a
study
   Variable:
two
or
more
levels
of
a
 characteristic,
event,
trait,
etc…
   Variable:
two
or
more
levels
of
a
 characteristic,
event,
trait,
etc…
   Operational
definition
   Definition
of
procedure
used
by
research
to
 measure
or
manipulate
variable
   Operational
definition
   Definition
of
procedure
used
by
research
to
 measure
or
manipulate
variable
   Some
variables
are
easier
to
quantify
that
others
 ▪  Memory
vs.
Extraversion
   As
long
as
something
is
numerically
qualified,
it
can
 be
measured!
 ▪  Different
ways
of
doing
it…we’ll
discuss
it
later…
   Descriptive
(Describe)
   Correlational
(Predict)
   Experimental
(Explain)
   What
is
the
main
different
among
the
three?
   Level
of
control
exerted
by
researcher

   Why
only
experimental
method
allows
for
 cause
and
effect
conclusions?
   Direct
manipulation
of
variables!!!
 Independent
vs
Dependent
Variables
   Independent
Variable
(IV)
=
Manipulated
or
 Causal
Variable
   Dependent
Variable
(DV)
=
affected
or
 outcome
variable
     Generating
Hypothesis
   Descriptive
vs.
causal
   Directional
vs.
non‐directional
   Identifying
and
defining
variables
   Setting
up
a
study
   Choosing
study
type
   Choosing
measures
   Choosing
participants
   Depends
on
the
characteristics
of
our
 hypothesis!
   Descriptive:
Formal
statement
of
a
 predicted
observation
 ▪  Correlational
 Allow
us
to
study:
   Are
two
things
related
to
each
other?
   What
is
the
direction
of
the
association?
   What
is
thestrength
of
the
association?
   Relationship
is
measured
by
a
correlation
 coefficient
   Descriptive
Hypotheses
   Non‐directional
 ▪  There
is
a
relationship
between
age
and
amount
of
veggie
 eaten
in
a
week
   Directional
 ▪  As
children
grow,
they
eat
more
veggies
   Existence
 Age
   Direction
 Age
 Amount
of
veggies
 Age
 Amount
of
veggies
 Amount
of
veggies
   Strength
 Strong
 Correlation
 moderate
 Correlation
   Correlation
coefficient
     Is
represented
by
r
   If
–1
<
r
<
0
:
negative
 correlation
   If

1
>
r
>
0
:
positive
 correlation
   
r
Range
from
–1
to
1
   Is
There
a
correlation?
   If

r
=
0
:
no
   If

r
≠
0
:
yes
 Direction
   Strength

   As
r
gets
close
to
zero
 the
correlation
gets
 weaker
   As
r
gets
close
to

1

the
 correlation
gets
stronger
   Making
Predictions
 Age
 Amount
of
veggie
   So
does
age
cause
you
to
eat
more
veggies?
 •  Direction
of
relationship
unknown
 •  Possible
third
variable
   Spurious
correlation
   Depends
on
the
characteristics
of
our
 hypothesis!
   Descriptive
 ▪  Correlational
   Causal:
Explains
possible
cause
for
the
 pattern
stated
in
the
descriptive
 hypothesis. 
 ▪  Experimental
   Hypothesis
   Children
who
know
that
veggies
are
healthy
will
 choose
them
to
a
greater
extent
compared
to
 children
without
that
knowledge
 ▪  Directional
hypothesis
   Experiment
   Manipulation











Effect
   Experiment
   Manipulation











Effect
 Knowledge
 Type
of
video
watched:
 informative
vs.
not
 Choice
 Choosing
broccoli
over
 crackers
 Independent

 variable
 Type
of
video
watched:
 info
or
no
info
 Experimental
 group
 Control
 group
   How
are
we
sure
that
any
potential
effect
is
 due
to
our
IV?
   We
need
to
ensure
that
the
only
difference
b/w
 the
“experimental”
and
“control”
group
is
 exposure
to
our
manipulation!
 Random
 Type
of
video
watched:
 assignment
 violent
or
nice
 Experimental
 group
 Control
 group
   Random
assignment
   Ensures
each
participant
has
SAME
probability
to
 be
in
either
group
   Ensures
that
any
difference
is
averaged
out!
   Choosing
study
type
   Type
of
study
depends
on
type
of
hypothesis
we
 are
interested
in
testing
 ▪  Descriptive
=
Correlational
study
 ▪  Causal
=
Experimental
study
   Generating
Hypothesis
   Descriptive
vs.
causal
   Directional
vs.
non‐directional
   Identifying
and
defining
variables
   Setting
up
a
study
   Choosing
study
type
   Choosing
measures
   Choosing
participants
   Operational
definition
   Definition
of
procedure
used
by
research
to
 measure
or
manipulate
variable
   Some
variables
are
easier
to
quantify
that
others
 ▪  Memory
vs.
Extraversion
   As
long
as
something
is
numerically
qualified,
it
can
 be
measured!
 ▪  Different
ways
of
doing
it…we’ll
discuss
it
later…
   How
do
we
measure
variables?
   Measurement
Types
   Measurement
scales
   Decide
of
the
measurement
type
   Behavioral
   Physiological
   Self‐report
   Test
   Options
for
measurement
   Behavioral:
choice
or
no‐choice

   Physiological:
how
much
salivation
in
response
to
 veggies
as
opposed
to
crackers
   Options
for
measurement
   Self‐report
 ▪  fill
in
questionnaire
on
how
many
times
a
week
you
eat
 veggie
and
other
food
 ▪  Likert
scale:
how
much
do
you
like
veggies?
 ▪  Not
at
all,
little
bit,
quite
a
lot,
very
much
   Standardized
tests
 ▪  Beck
Depression
Inventory
(BDI)
 ▪  IQ
test
 ...
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