Lecture8-Feb+2nd-Descriptive+methods

Lecture8-Feb+2nd-Descriptive+methods -  

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Unformatted text preview:   Grades
for
Midterm
1
and
Exercise
2
are
 posted
   To
discuss
exam
results
come
to
office
hours
   For
exercise
2
refer
to
Allison
(or
me)
   Mean
=
202.5
(SD
=29.85)
[B‐]
   Range
=
80‐250
pts
   As=
29%
   Bs=
33.5%
   Cs=
23.5%
   Ds=
9.5%
   Fs=
4.5%
   Good
job!

 theory
about
how
 something
works
 generate
predictions

 testing:
comparing
 the
observations
 with
the
theory
 (what
would
the
theory
 lead
you
to
observe?)
 systematic
empirical
 observations
   Characteristics
of
descriptive
methods
   The
observational
design
   The
case
study
design
   The
survey
design
   The
goal
is
to
describe
individual
variables
as
 they
exist
   Not
concerned
with
relationships
between
 variables
   To
get
interesting
information
about
 behaviors
   To
explore
‘unresearched’
or
new
 phenomenon
   Exploratory
study
   A
survey
by
the
Bureau
of
Labor
Statistics
 found
that
the
average
U.S.
citizen
watches
 2.6
hours
of
television
each
day
   The
most
popular
name
for
baby
boys
in
the
 U.S.
is
Jacob,
and
for
girls
it
is
Emily
   In
the
U.S.,
2,000
children
are
reported
 missing
every
day
   An
international
study
on
aging
reports
that
1
 in
10
people
in
their
70s
continue
to
be
 employed
   Characteristics
of
descriptive
methods
   The
observational
design
   The
case
study
design
   The
survey
design
   The
purpose
of
observational
design
is
simply
 to
describe
behavior
   Don’t
confuse
with
observations
as
a
 measuring
technique!
   These
can
be
used
in
any
type
of
study
   Concerns
   Subjectivity
in
interpreting
behavior
   Behavior
should
not
be
disrupted
or
 influenced
by
the
observer’s
presence
 ▪  Conceal
observation
(disguised
observation)
 ▪  Habituation
(repeated
exposure)
   How
do
we
observe
behavior?
 1.  Record
first,
then
code!
 2.  Real‐time
recording
of
a
sample
   How
can
we
sample?
   Children’s
interaction
 ▪  Time
 ▪  Behavior
 ▪  individuals
   Sampling
observations
 Interval
 Interval
 Interval
 Interval
 Interval
 Interval
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 Time
sampling
 observe
 record
 observe
 record
 observe
 record
 Event
sampling
 Record
 Record
 Record
 Record
 Record
 Record
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 Individual
sampling
 Record
 Record
 Record
 Record
 Record
 Record
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 behav.
 person
 person
 person
 person
 person
 person
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
   Observations
need
to
be
converted
into
 numerical
scores!
   Quantifying
observations
   Frequency
method
 ▪  #
of
times
behavior
occurred
within
a
set
time
period
   Duration
method
 ▪  Time
spent
on
a
specific
behavior
within
a
set
time
period
   Interval
method
 ▪  Divide
observation
period
to
shorter
segments
 ▪  Count
when
behavior
appears
within
each
segment
   Types
of
observations
   Naturalistic
(nonparticipant)
observation
 ▪  Insight
to
real‐world
behavior
 ▪  High
external
(or
ecological)
validity
 ▪  Useful
for
examining
behaviors
that
cannot
be
 manipulated
   Types
of
observations
   Naturalistic
(nonparticipant)
observation
   Participant
observation
 ▪  Insight
to
behaviors
that
are
usually
not
open
to
 exploration
 ▪  Observer
gain
a
unique
perspective
   Contrived/structured
observation
   Characteristics
of
descriptive
methods
   The
observational
design
   The
case
study
design
   The
survey
design
   In
depth
study
and
description
of
one
 person’s
behavior
   Using
observations,
interviews,
questionnaires
   Can
lead
to
general
laws
or
theories

   Insight
into
rare
phenomenon

   Anna
O.
   Henry
Gustav
Molaison
aka
patient
H.M.
   Characteristics
of
descriptive
methods
   The
observational
design
   The
case
study
design
   The
survey
design
   Conducted
simply
to
obtain
an
accurate
 description
of
a
particular
group
of
people
   Attitudes
and
beliefs
   Facts
and
demographics
   Behaviors
   Process
 1.  Creating
survey
 ▪  Develop
questions
 ▪  Choose
answers’
option
 2. Select
how
survey
will
be
administered
 ▪  Questionnaire
 ▪  Interview
   Developing
questions
   Keep
them
simple!!!!
   Avoid
 •  Memory
overload
questions
 •  Jargon/technical
terms
   Developing
questions
   Avoid
 •  Memory
overloaded
questions
 •  Jargon/technical
terms
 •  Double‐barreled
questions
 •  Emotionally
loaded
questions
 •  Leading
questions
 •  Barnum
statements
   Developing
questions
   Control
for
Response
Bias
(Reverse
Code)!!!
   Choosing
answer’s
options
   Closed
number
of
alternatives
 ▪  Likert
scale
 ▪  Yes/No
 ▪  Frequency
 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree No Opinion Agree Strongly Agree   Choosing
answer’s
options
   Open‐ended
:
respondents
are
free
to
give
 answers
in
their
own
way
 ▪  More
variability
in
answers
 ▪  Less
structure
 ▪  A
Priori
versus
Post
Hoc
Knowledge
   Selecting
how
to
administer
the
survey
   Questionnaires
:
PP
read
and
answer
   Interviews
:
responses
provided
verbally
   Questionnaire
   Self‐administered
 ▪  Inexpensive
and
easy
 ▪  Anonymity
 ▪  Low
response
rate
 ▪  Nonresponse
bias
 ▪  Unrepresentative
sample
 ▪  No
one
to
clarify
   Questionnaire
   Investigator‐administered

 ▪  Can
clarify
questions
 ▪  Perceived
as
less
anonymous
=
more
socially
 desirable
responses
   Interview
   Can
be
face‐to‐face,
by
phone,
or
focus‐ group
   Allows
for
clarification
and
more
in‐depth

 investigation
   However,
 ▪  It
is
time
consuming
and
expensive
 ▪  Interviewer
bias
   Interview
   Structured
   Semi‐structured
   Unstructured
   Self‐report
measure
are
subject
to
bias!!! 
   Response
inaccuracy
 1.  Don’t
know
the
answer
   Response
inaccuracy
 1.  Don’t
know
the
answer
 2.  Fail
to
remember
what

 happened
 ▪  Retrospective
reports
 3.  Cannot
predict
future
 ▪  Prospective
reports
 4.  Know,
but
biased
 Social Desirability Reactivity Response Set   Access
to
thoughts
and
feelings
   Inexpensive
   Flexible
 ...
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