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Final Review Sheet - Final Review Sheet PNP 200...

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Final Review Sheet —PNP 200, Introduction to Cognitive Science Cognitive Science is the study of the mind/brain in terms of information processing The two pillars of cognitive science: 1) the positing of internal representations, 2) the idea of computability and algorithms The Pre-history of psychology as a separate science (including Fechner, Wundt, James, Watson, etc.) - Weber: perception of 2 sticks vs. 1 sticks on the touch sensation on various parts of the body - Fechner: Just Noticeable Difference - Wundt: structure of consciousness; thinking in pictures v. text - James: using physiology to get at mind and states of being; what generates behavior? Commitments of behaviorism - Psychology should concern itself mostly with studying behavior - We should look at the causes of behavior outside the mind (environment, physiology, etc.) - Skinner Box o Rat in box, rat hits button, rat gets food o Rat more frequently hits button to get reward o Demonstrates the ties between a stimulus and an organisms response - William James: in order to have an idea or though, it has to be useful and usable in the environment - Introspection o Problems: subjects were the experimenters - Goal: the prediction and control of behavior o Psychologists wanted to facilitate career choices by testing people - Animal Studies (Thorndike, Watson) o Difficult because of language barrier, therefore no introspection - Watson’s “Psychology as the Behaviorist sees it” o Wanted psych to be a hard science because psych is objective o Needed good, solid experiments that do not rely on introspection; introspection is not credible o Psych studies behavior, not the mind
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o Animal studies are relevant Tolman’s studies in maze-running, and the implication for behaviorism - In order to explain certain behaviors, one need to posit internal mental maps, a type of representation - Experiment 1: Latent Learning o The rat learns the maze when its not hungry, but doesn’t show it until it is withheld food o After made hungry, they act like they have been reinforced all along o NOT simple reinforced learning - Experiment 2: Place learning v. response learning o Started rats at different locations for learning the maze and then changed their entry point o Rats still knew how to get the food. Therefore, they didn’t just memorize right/left turns, they have a mental map - Experiment 3: Radial Maze o Rats learns one maze, then switches mazes where the previous alley is a blind alley o The rat always always comes back out, looks around, and finds right path o Rat does not chose randomly (does not guess-and-check), but chooses the most likely route - Experiment 4: Searching for the stimulus o Strong stimulus, very quick learning time Ex: electric shock o But rats will always search for the cause of the stimulus Ex: after shock, they will look around to find origin o Rats don’t just learn to perform a certain behavior, but they learn about things in their environment - Led to the fall of behaviorism o Behaviorism is inadequate for explaining how rats learn mazes and avoid
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