CHAPTER 11 2009-Zumdahl - Chapter 11 – PROPERTIES OF...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 – PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS 11.1 Solution Composition: a. Overview and Terms: i- A Solution is a homogeneous mixture that consists of solute and solvent (the latter is one that is present in the largest quantity). ii- An aqueous solution (aq) has water as the solvent. iii- Concentrated solution- contains a large amount of dissolved solute. iv- Dilute solution– contains small amount of dissolved solute. v- Saturated solution– contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute that is normally possible at a particular temperature. vi- Unsaturated solution- a solution that can dissolve (hold) more solute. vii- Supersaturated solution – contains more dissolved solute than it normally does to give a saturated solution at a particular temperature. b. Units of Concentration: How much solute is in a solution? 1. Mass Percent % = Mass of solute_ x 100% Mass of solution 2. Mole fraction ( X i ) = Mole of a component __________ Total moles of components in solution 3. Molality (m) = M oles of solute Kg of solvent 4. Molarity (M) = Moles of solute Liters of solution 5. Parts per Million (PPM) = mg of solute Liter of solution = g solute x 10 6 g solution * Mass %, Mole Fraction, Molality INDEPENDENT of temperature * Molarity, PPM dependent on temperature because as the solution temp changes, the solution volume may change 1 Example 11.1A- Solution Components Identify the solvent and solutes in the following solution. (a) Dry air contains about 78.1% nitrogen, 21.0% oxygen, 0.9% argon, and trace amounts of other gases. (b) Natural gas contains 97% methane (CH 4 ), 1.5% ethane (C 2 H 6 ), 1% CO 2 , and 0.5% nitrogen gases. (c) Rubbing alcohol contains 70% isopropyl alcohol and 30% water. Example 11.1B- Units of Concentration a. A solution is prepared by dissolving 2.275 g of NaOH in enough water to make a 200.0 mL solution. Calculate the molarity of the solution. b. Calculate the mass percent of the solute in a solution containing 19.5 g NH 4 Cl in 485 g of water. What is the molality of the solution? c. A solution is prepared by mixing 16.0 g of CH 3 OH and 50.0 g of water. (i) What is the mass percent of methanol in the solution? (ii) what is the mole fraction of each component in the solution? (iii) If the density of solution is 0.955 g/mL, what is the molarity and molality of CH 3 OH, respectively, in the solution?...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 06/20/2011 for the course CHEM 111A taught by Professor Hockings during the Fall '08 term at Washington University in St. Louis.

Page1 / 28

CHAPTER 11 2009-Zumdahl - Chapter 11 – PROPERTIES OF...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online