CHAPTER 11 2009-Zumdahl - 11. a.OverviewandTerms (...

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Chapter 11 – PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS 11.1  Solution Composition:    a. Overview and Terms: i- A Solution is a homogeneous mixture that consists of solute and solvent (the latter is one that is  present in the largest quantity).   ii- An aqueous solution (aq) has water as the solvent. iii- Concentrated solution-  contains a large amount of dissolved solute. iv- Dilute solution– contains small amount of dissolved solute. v- Saturated solution– contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute that is normally possible at a  particular temperature. vi- Unsaturated solution- a solution that can dissolve (hold) more solute. vii- Supersaturated solution – contains more dissolved solute than it normally does to give a saturated  solution at a particular temperature. b. Units of Concentration:   How much solute is in a solution? 1. Mass Percent % =   Mass of solute_  x 100%         Mass of solution  2.      Mole fraction ( X i =            Mole of a component __________    Total moles of components in solution 3. Molality (m) =    M     oles      of solute                                           Kg of solvent   4. Molarity (M) =    Moles      of solute                                         Liters of solution 5. Parts per Million (PPM)  =   mg      of solute              Liter of solution          = g solute     x 10 6       g solution * Mass %, Mole Fraction, Molality   INDEPENDENT of temperature * Molarity, PPM   dependent on temperature because as the solution temp changes, the solution volume  may change 1
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Example 11.1A- Solution Components Identify the solvent and solutes in the following solution. (a) Dry air contains about 78.1% nitrogen, 21.0% oxygen, 0.9% argon, and trace amounts of other  gases. (b) Natural gas contains 97% methane (CH 4 ), 1.5% ethane (C 2 H 6 ), 1% CO 2 , and 0.5% nitrogen gases. (c) Rubbing alcohol contains 70% isopropyl alcohol and 30% water. Example 11.1B- Units of Concentration a. A solution is prepared by dissolving 2.275 g of NaOH in enough water to make a 200.0 mL solution.  Calculate the molarity of the solution. b. Calculate the mass percent of the solute in a solution containing 19.5 g NH 4 Cl in 485 g of water. What  is the molality of the solution? c. A solution is prepared by mixing 16.0 g of CH 3 OH and 50.0 g of water.  (i) What is the mass percent of methanol in the solution?  (ii) what is the mole fraction of each component in the solution?   (iii) If the density of solution is 0.955 g/mL, what is the molarity and molality of CH 3 OH, respectively, in  the solution?
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