CHAPTER 14 2009-Zumdahl - CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES 14.1...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 14 - ACIDS AND BASES 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases a. The Arrhenius Theory i- Acid: a substance that produces hydrogen ion in aqueous solution . ii-Base: a substance that produces hydroxide ion in aqueous solution . (All highly soluble hydroxides and oxides of metals are bases.) b. The Br ø nsted-Lowry Theory: Reactions that involve the transfer of protons (H + ) are acid-base reactions. i- Acid: a substance that acts as a proton donor in chemical reaction. ii- Base: a substance that acts as a proton acceptor in chemical reaction. iii-The Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction can be represented as follows: iv-A BrØnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction involves a competition between two bases for a proton, in which the stronger base ends up being the most protonated at equilibrium. iv-In each reaction, a conjugate base is what remains of the acid molecule after it loses a proton (H + ), and a conjugate acid is what becomes of the base after it gains a proton. v- Conjugate acid/base pairs: a pair of species that are related to each other by the loss or gain of a single proton (H + ). Example 14.1A- Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs a. Write the conjugate base for each of the following acids: 1 (i) H 2 PO 4- (ii) H 2 C 2 O 4 (iii) [Al(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ (iv) NH 3 b. Write the conjugate acid for each of the following bases: (i) NH 3 (ii) [Al(H 2 O) 2 (OH- ) 4 ]- (iii) SO 3 2- (iv) (CH 3 ) 3 N c. The Lewis Acid and Base Theory (G.N. Lewis ) i- Acid : the reactant that is capable of accepting a pair of electrons from another reactant to form a covalent bond. ii- Base : is the reactant that donates a pair of electrons to be shared to form a covalent bond. iii-The Lewis acid-base reaction can be represented as follows: Example 14.1B- Lewis Acids and Bases a. Determine the Lewis acids and Lewis bases in the following reactions: (i) CO 2(g) + H 2 O ( l ) ⇋ H 2 CO 3(aq) (ii) SO 3(g) + H 2 O ( l ) ⇋ H 2 SO 4(aq) (iii) AlCl 3 + (CH 3 ) 3 N: ⇋ (CH 3 ) 3 N:AlCl 3 (iv) Zn(OH) 2(s) + 2OH- (aq) ⇋ Zn(OH) 4 2- (aq) (v) AuCl 3 (s) + Cl- (aq) ⇋ AuCl 4- (aq) 2 14.2 Acids Strength: Equibrium Expressions for Acid Dissociations a. The strength of an acid is defined by the extent of its dissociation (ionization) in aqueous solution. HA (aq) + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + A- (aq) b. The equilibrium constant, K a , for the acid ionization is given by the following expression: [H 3 O + ][A- ] [H + ][A- ] K a =...
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CHAPTER 14 2009-Zumdahl - CHAPTER 14 ACIDS AND BASES 14.1...

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