CHAPTER 14 2009-Zumdahl - 14. a.TheArrheniusTheory iAcid:...

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CHAPTER 14 - ACIDS AND BASES  14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases a. The Arrhenius Theory i-  Acid:  a substance that produces hydrogen ion in aqueous solution . ii -Base:  a substance that produces hydroxide ion in aqueous solution .   (All highly soluble hydroxides and oxides of metals are bases.) b. The Br ø nsted-Lowry Theory:  Reactions that involve the transfer of protons (H + ) are                                                     acid-base reactions.    i-   Acid:  a substance that acts as a proton donor in chemical reaction. ii-  Base:  a substance that acts as a proton acceptor in chemical reaction. iii-The Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction can be represented as follows:   iv-A Br Ø nsted-Lowry acid-base reaction involves a competition between two bases for a proton, in  which  the stronger base ends up being the most protonated at equilibrium. iv-In each reaction, a  conjugate base  is what remains of the acid molecule after it  loses a proton (H + ), and a  conjugate acid  is what becomes of the base after it gains a  proton.  v-  Conjugate acid/base pairs: a pair of species that are related to each other  by the loss or gain of a single proton (H     +   ).       Example 14.1A- Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs a. Write the conjugate base for each of the following acids: 1
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(i) H 2 PO 4 - (ii) H 2 C 2 O 4 (iii) [Al(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ (iv) NH 3 b. Write the conjugate acid for each of the following bases: (i) NH 3 (ii) [Al(H 2 O) 2 (OH - ) 4 ] - (iii) SO 3 2- (iv) (CH 3 ) 3 N c. The Lewis Acid and Base Theory (G.N. Lewis ) i-  Acid : the reactant that is capable of accepting a pair of electrons from another  reactant to form a covalent bond.  ii- Base : is the reactant that donates a pair of electrons to be shared to form a covalent  bond.   iii-The Lewis acid-base reaction can be represented as follows: Example 14.1B- Lewis Acids and Bases a. Determine the Lewis acids and Lewis bases in the following reactions: (i)  CO 2(g)   +  H 2 O ( l )     H 2 CO 3(aq) (ii)  SO 3(g)   +  H 2 O ( l )      H 2 SO 4(aq) (iii)  AlCl 3  +  (CH 3 ) 3 N:     (CH 3 ) 3 N:AlCl 3 (iv)  Zn(OH) 2(s)  + 2OH - (aq)      Zn(OH) 4 2- (aq) (v)  AuCl 3 (s) + Cl - (aq)     AuCl 4 - (aq) 2
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14.2  Acids Strength: Equibrium Expressions for Acid Dissociations a. The strength of an acid is defined by the extent of its dissociation (ionization) in aqueous solution.  HA (aq)   +  H 2  H 3 O + (aq)   +  A - (aq) b. The equilibrium constant,  K a ,  for the acid ionization is given by the following expression: [H 3 O + ][A - ]    [H + ][A - ] K a   =      =       [HA]      [HA] c. Strong acids, such as HClO 4
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  • Spring '08
  • HOCKINGS
  • Bases, Acids, Sulfuric acid

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