Lecture 5 - V ideo parrot scientist teaching them...

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Video: parrot & scientist teaching them English (Lecture 4) - Social learning: 2 people talking back & forth, social interaction to teach The Development of Behavior I 1. Introduction a. Simon LeVay – an old question revisited i. Hypothesized that specific brain structures would differ between homosexual & heterosexual mean. Why? 1. He k new that the anterior hypothalamus is important in regulation of sexual activity in humans (vertebrates) 2. Differences in sizes of some nuclei had already been demonstrated (men > females) 3. Nuclei may play a role in mediating certain aspects of sexual ii. Hyp: there will be differences in the size of nuclei in the anterior hypothalamus that correlate to sexual orientation iii. Experiment: LeVay compared the size of hypothalamic nuclei in homosexual & heterosexual brains (really experimental correlation) iv. Results: INAH-3 (a nuclei) was smaller in homosexual brains than heterosexual brains (INAH-3 is also smaller in females) v. Conclusion: “This finding indicates that INAH is dimorphic with sexual orientation, at least in men, and suggests that sexual orientation has a biological substrate.” vi. Possible explanations: 1. INAH-3 size is correlated to sexual orientation in adults however 2. Does not provide a genetic basis for behavior (homosexuality) 3. Does not suggest a mechanism but does suggest that homosexuality, at in men, has a biological (rather than vii. Homosexuals determined to have a smaller INAH-3 viii. Due to organizational effect of hormones on the fetus ix. One possible Experiment: look at behavior 1. Does homosexual behavior cause INAH-3 to decrease in size x. Male territorial fish: large GnRH-ir neurons in the preoptic area of the 1. Non-territorial males: small GnRH-ir neurons in the preoptic area of the brain 2. When males gain or lose territory, preoptic area GnRH-ir neurons grow or shrink accordingly 2. Hormones as Organizational Triggers a. Organizational effects i. The presence or absence of certain hormones during early development can cause the brain to develop in a certain way
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1. Absence in development then secondary hormone won’t be able to be activate & behavior not expressed 2. Presence of hormone makes behavior appear ii.
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