NPB102 MT1 Lectures

NPB102 MT1 Lectures - Tinbergens 4 questions & Hypothesis...

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1. Approaches to studying animal behavior a. Classically we had i. Psychology: study of the human mind 1. Focuses on “how” questions (proximate causation) 2. Ex. How do humans learn ii. Ethology: biological study of behavior 1. 2. Ex. Why did this behavior evolve to be this way b. Newer fields i. ii. Sociobiology relates evolution to social behaviors c. Behavioral methods and approaches are commonly use in a variety of fields i. animation 2. The 4 Questions : Niko Tinbergen a. Proximate questions i. How does it work ? (proximate causation or control) 1. Which stimuli illicit the behavior pattern and what neurobiological, psychological or physiological mechanisms contribute or regulate this behavior? ii. How did it develop ? (development or ontogeny) 1. How did the behavior arise during the lifetime of the individual? 2. How does the development process work? 3. How does the environment influence the development of this behavior? b. Ultimate Questions i. Why does the behavior exist ? (current fx) 1. Why does behaving in a particular way help the individual to survive and reproduce in its physical and social world? ii. Why did the behavior evolve ? (evolution or phylogeny) 1. Why did the behavior evolve over the evolutionary hx of the animal? 2. What factors might have been involved in molding this behavior over the course of evolution? 3. Applying Tinbergen’s 4 questions a. Observation: Car stops at a red light i. Pushing the brakes causes the car to stop 1. Test by having 2 cars disabling brakes in one car 2. OR red light stimulates the driver to stop the car a. Test by having a red light or blue light ii. Behavior develops by learning iii. Stopping at the light increases the chances of the individuals survival 1. Test in statistical manner by looking at historical records iv. Evolutionary: red evolved as a signal of danger (ie fire), traffic signals & what happens 1. Test the first by looking at different cultures to see if red used 4. Hermit crab with an anemone on its shell a. Why did this happen? i. Anemone adheres to the crab shell before the crab gets into the shell 1. ii. Physical contact of claw (mechano), a chemical cue, or auditory cue, causes the anemone to release b. Developmentally?
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i. Get a crab that has never been exposed to anemone & expose it to one to see if behavior observed ii. Present shapes to crab to see if it triggers the behavior iii. Remove anemone c. Current fx – why does it exist? i.
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This note was uploaded on 06/21/2011 for the course NPB 102 taught by Professor Hahn during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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NPB102 MT1 Lectures - Tinbergens 4 questions & Hypothesis...

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