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Brain Response of Behavior

Brain Response of Behavior - Axia College Material Appendix...

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# Axia College Material Appendix C Brain Response of Behavior
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Part I Note: Parts II and III follow below, complete all three. Run Multimedia’s 2.3 and 2.4 o Go to the Web site www.prenhall.com/morris . o Click text: Psychology: An Introduction (12 th ed.) o Click “2” on the select a chapter tool bar. o Click Live!Psych on the left hand menu. o Select 2.3 and 2.4. Write a 350- to 700-word response to the following: Explain the communication process of neurons in the brain. List some common neurotransmitters and describe their effect on behavior. The nervous system is an electrical system. A neuron receives a signal with its 'feelers', known as dendrites, and determines whether to pass the signal on or not. If it continues the signal, it sends an impulse along a tube called an axon. At the end of the axon, there is a gap called a synapse. The electric pulse will jump across this gap to other neurons, thus passing on information. There may be thousands of neurons that receive a particular message, but only certain ones will respond. For example, if a person hurts themselves, it will be the neurons responsible for feeling pain that respond and continue the message to the brain. But this message might be sent to organs such as the hypothalamus or adrenal glands, and these glands respond by secreting hormones which result in increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, a release of endorphins (for reducing the pain) etc, while other neurons which aren’t related will inhibit the signal and stop it from being passed on.
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When a neuron fires a signal, it creates a rapid change in the electrical potential across the membrane known as action potential. Once an action potential occurs, it spreads down the axon to the terminal buttons causing chemical changes to occur, which then releases a neurotransmitter (The Brock University Stuttering Research Laboratory, nd). In order to be transmitted correctly, terminal buttons must contain neurotransmitters of a certain shape to fit the receptor sites. These neurotransmitters have various functions, which include stimulation, motivation, regulation, transmissions and inhibitions of various functions of the body. Neurotransmitters have a significant impact in the regulation of emotion, mood, sensory functions, and perception. Dopamine- Dopamine plays a role in the coordination of movement. Most people understand dopamine through the examination of Parkinson’s disease. “This illness is associated with low levels of dopamine in the brain and is characterized by spastic motion of the eyelids as well as rhythmic tremors of the hands and other parts of the body” (Chemistry Explained, 2009, ¶ 2). Serotonin- Modulates “mood, emotion, sleep and appetite and thus is implicated in the control of numerous behavioral and physiological functions” (Williams, 1998, ¶ 1).
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