ch 2 pp - Chapter 2 The History of the The Family Family...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 The History of the The Family Family Prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Prepared The Study of the Family The Began in 1960 – Aries History of childhood – Demos What Do Families Do? Origins of Family and Kinship Origins Evolutionary theory—infants need care Hunter-gatherers Settled agriculture Lineages: Form of kinship in which descent is traced descent – Patrilineage: Father’s line Patrilineage: Father’s – Matrilineage: Mother’s line Matrilineage: Mother’s Origins of Family and Kinship (cont.) Origins Ensure order Defend against outsiders Provide labor Assist others in group Recruit new members – Through marriage Origins of Family and Kinship (cont.) Origins In most societies it is smaller family units – Mother and children always – Husband/father, usually – Other household members, sometimes Origins of Family and Kinship (cont.) Western culture—smaller kinship groups – Conjugal family: Husband, wife and Conjugal children children – Extended family: Other relatives present in household household Origins of Family and Kinship (cont.) – Polygyny: One man, many wives – Polyandry: One woman, more than one Polyandry: husband husband Family and kinship systems were Family developed to provide fundamental needs developed – Food production – Defense Na Kinship Na Brothers and sisters live in mother’s Brothers household for life household Instead of taking wives, men visit women in Instead other households other – free to visit any Na woman who will consent to free sex sex Na Kinship (cont.) Na When children are born, they remain with When mother and maternal aunts and uncles mother Fathers do not live with their children, but Fathers they are a presence in their lives they Na Kinship (cont.) Na After Communist Revolution in China, After government began to promote monogamy among the Na – they resisted among Government eventually backed down Modes of Production—Historical Modes Production Production Reproduction Reproduction Consumption Consumption Characteristics: Familial Familial = Mode of Mode Production Production – Self-sufficient, farming family – Grow food, raise animals, produce clothing Grow and build dwellings and Modes of Production—Recent Modes Reproduction = Labor Market Reproduction Labor Production Mode of Production Production Mode of Characteristics: Characteristics: – Work for wages – Buy goods and services – Separated home from workplace – Parental authority eroded—land no longer Parental bargaining chip bargaining The American Family before 1776 before Indigenous people—American Indians European Colonists African Slaves American Indian Families: The Primacy of the Tribes Primacy American Indian—Indigenous people of North America North Family units based on lineages Native American families—exception – Tribes, both matrilineal and patrilineal – Matrilineal ties to maternal kin – Patrilineal ties to paternal kin European Colonists: The Primacy of the Public Family the Families performed public services – Education – Hospitals Hospitals – Houses of correction Houses – Orphanages Orphanages – Nursing homes Nursing – Poor houses European Colonists: The Primacy of European the Public Family (cont.) the – Children—economic assets Learned skills needed to help out family No room for privacy or private lives – Family affairs are public business The Emergence of the “Modern” American Family: 1776 to 1900 American Four new characteristics: Four – Marriage—based on mutual respect and Marriage—based affection affection – Wife cared for home and children—seen as Wife morally superior morally – Childhood was seen as time to protect and Childhood support children support – Number of children per family declined The Emergence of the “Modern” American Family: 1776 to 1900 (cont.) American Individualism—rise in personal relationships Individualism—rise in families – Emotional rewards Emotional – Autonomy Family Diversity Family Not all colonial families fit the ideal of two Not married, biological parents with children married, Informal marriage was common in the Informal Middle and Southern colonies -Europeans had long tradition of informal marriage marriage -People often proclaimed themselves to be -People married without the participation of clergy married From Cooperation to Separation: From Men’s and Women’s Spheres Men’s Change in the mode of production – Commercial capitalism – From familial to labor Men worked outside the home – World of work governed by business ethic – World outside the home From Cooperation to Separation: From Men’s and Women’s Spheres (cont.) Men’s Women worked inside the home – Home considered place where a woman Home would renew husband’s character and spirituality spirituality – True womanhood where woman was Pious upholder of spiritual values Pure Submissive to man Domestic Working Class Families Working Immigrant Families – In 1850 10% of population had been born in In other countries other – By 1900 this figure was 15%; 1960 – 5%; By 2003 – 12% 2003 – Worked long hours for low wages – Lived in crowded unsanitary conditions Living Between Modes – Economic contributions of both husband Economic and wife plus children were needed to survive survive Breadwinner-homemaker model was Breadwinner-homemaker impossible impossible Children often worked (until child labor laws Children created) created) Wives rarely worked outside the home— worked in home on laundry, piecework or took worked in boarders or lodgers in – Very few people lived alone Living Between Modes (cont.) – Families living as if they were producing for Families themselves, but were in labor force or at home producing for others home – Common family fund, the good of the Common family reigned, and the father decided how the money was spent the Living Between Modes (cont.) – This type of living was unstable Children grew and left to earn their own money Authority of father eroded Families produced less children due to economic Families stress stress – Children—economic liabilities African-American, Mexican-American, African-American, and Asian Immigrant Families and Africans forced to immigrate—captured or bought in West Africa and sold as slaves slaves Mexicans searching for grazing lands Asians came to work as laborers on Asians railroads, etc. railroads, African-American Families African-American An African Heritage? Historically maintained stronger ties to Historically extended kin extended Children before marriage Children Women worked African society was organized by African lineages lineages – Marriage much more of a process Slavery stripped elders of authority over Slavery marriage process marriage Impact of Slavery Impact E. Franklin Frazier believed that slavery E. had destroyed social organization among slaves slaves In 1976, Gutman found substantial In evidence that slaves often married for life, and kept track of extended family life, – Most families—two parents Black women—work outside the home Mexican-American Families Mexican-American Mexicans settled the frontier of Northern Mexicans Mexico Mexico Landowners and farmer-laborers, Landowners compadres compadres – Farmer-laborers—Mestizo—part Spanish —part and part Native American and – Compadrazgo: In Mexico, the godparent relationship of wealthy or influential person outside the kinship group asked to become compadres compadres Mexican-American Families (cont.) Mexican-American – This social structure disrupted by wars, This revolts and land grabs in 1830s and 1840s revolts – U.S. acquired by conquest the current U.S. Southwestern U.S. Southwestern – Mexicans became more of a working class – Many were forced into barrios—segregated Many barrios—segregated Mexican-American neighborhoods in U.S. Mexican-American Asian Immigrant Families Asian The Asian Heritage Immigrants from China and Japan and Immigrants their descendents their Family systems sharply different – Fathers had authority over family – Kinship—patrilineal – Children expected to take care of elderly Children and live with them and Greater emphasis on family loyalty Asian Immigrant Families (cont.) Few families, remittances, no Few remittances, citizenship, discrimination citizenship, – Arranged marriages When Japanese migrated to Hawaii in When 1880s, more balance of ratio of women to men, so more families formed to Figured out ways of building family-like Figured ties in U.S. ties Asian Immigrant Families (cont.) Asian Discrimination led to Japanese Discrimination internment camps—WW II internment Immigration Act of 1965 changed the restrictions that blocked most Asian immigration and substituted a yearly quota quota – Asian population expanded rapidly 2000 census: 11.9 million Asian Americans – Filipinos bilateral kinship—both sides Filipinos bilateral The Rise of the Private Family: The 1900-Present 1900-Present The Early Decades The Rise in premarital sex, decline in births, Rise rising divorce rate, “inappropriate behavior”—1920s behavior”—1920s Rise in marriage rate—greater Rise emotional satisfaction from marriage emotional The Early Decades (cont.) Families becoming less of a dominant Families force in people’s lives force – Marriage become less necessary Marriage economically and materially economically Marriage become more fragile The Early Decades (cont.) Privacy and private families on increase – Birthrate decline – Adult life expectancy increased Adult – More apartments were built for More independent living independent The Early Decades (cont.) Basis of marriage—economics to Basis emotional satisfaction and companionship companionship Men and women—more economically Men independent independent Marriage bonds weakened Marriage – Divorce more common The Depression Generation Affected family finances Undermined authority of father Divorce rate fell Postponement of marriage and Postponement childbearing childbearing – 1 in 5 never had children (1 in 10 norm) Children helped out by working The 1950s Married at the youngest ages and had Married more children than any other 20th century generation century Figure 2.1 Figure Percentage never married among men and Percentage women aged 20 to 24 women The 1950s (cont.) Baby boom renewed emphasis on marriage and children marriage – From a relatively small birth cohort From birth – Preferred family size shifted Highpoint of breadwinner-homemaker Highpoint model model – Not really the traditional family – Faded quickly Figure 2.2 Figure Percentage of children aged 0-17 living in Percentage each of four types of families each 1960s and Beyond Birthrate plunged Married on average 4-5 years later Married than before than Young people wanted independence Divorce rate doubled 1960s–70s – Declined slightly since then Cohabitation—1970s Women working outside home 1960s and Beyond (cont.) Looking at Figure 2.3, show changes in Looking family and personal life family – Life-course perspective: Study of changes to individuals’ lives over time and related to historic events related – Twentieth century—great change in the Twentieth kinds of family lives individuals lead kinds Figure 2.3 Figure A llife-course perspective on social ife-course change in the 20th century change Emergence of Early Adulthood Emergence Early adulthood – period between mid-teens Early and about 30 and Labor force – all people who are working for Labor pay or looking for paid work pay The Role of Education The Education – main factor in lengthening of Education early adulthood early More employment opportunities for collegeeducated Young adults may still marry, but they may Young postpone children to further education postpone Declining Parental Control Declining A century ago, young people lived with century parents until marriage – today they live apart and parents have less control apart The more unconventional young adults The were (e.g. cohabitating w/out marriage), the more likely they were to have moved out of the state they were born the What History Tells Us Americans come from regions of the Americans world world – Different family traditions – Some mix of American and other traditions What History Tells Us (cont.) European American family systems European – Conjugal unit – Division of labor – Broke down in late 20th century – Placed weight on individual satisfaction What History Tells Us (cont.) Family systems non-European Family – Place more emphasis on kin Sometimes lineages – Marriage still central Larger family structures could support Weakening of marriage left European Weakening family systems more vulnerable family ...
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