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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3
Gender and Families Prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College 1 The Berdache Native Americans that behaved like the Native opposite sex opposite Individuals became berdaches in one of Individuals two ways: two 1. developed characteristics as children 1. (showing androgynous nature) (showing 2. experienced spiritual visions during adolescence adolescence
2 The Berdache (cont.)
Generally accepted by society Could marry person of same sex Sometimes females of reproductive age Sometimes were not allowed to take on berdache role were Number of berdaches rapidly declined by Number end of 1800s end 3 The Berdache (cont.) What is difference between sex and What gender? gender
– Sex: Biological characteristics – Gender: Social and cultural characteristics How many genders are there?
– Two, but berdache represented a “sort of” Two, third sex third – Intersexuals: Born with ambiguous sex organs organs
4 The Berdache (cont.) Can a person’s gender identity be Can modified? modified?
– Brain forms gender identity in response to Brain biological and social cues biological How much do gender differences reflect How men’s attempts to retain power over women? women? Some cultures blocked women’s moves Some towards a male role towards
5 The Gestational Construction of The Gender Gender Gestation: Nine-month development in Gestation: the womb the Genetic sex is determined at moment of Genetic conception conception -egg contributes X chromosome; sperm -egg contributes X or Y chromosome (XX – girl; XY– boy)
6 Hormonal Influences Some scientists believe that the sex Some hormones, androgens, do more than change genitals change Level of androgens may affect brain Level development development 7 Biosocial Influences Biosocial approach: Gender Biosocial identification and behavior based on peoples innate biological differences peoples
– Exist only “on average” – Depends on environment in which a person Depends is raised is 8 The Childhood Construction The of Gender of Social role: Pattern of behaviors Social associated with position in society associated Gender role: Different sets of behaviors Gender commonly exhibited commonly 9 Parental Socialization Process by which one learns the ways of Process a given society/social group in order to function in it function Socialization approach: Children Socialization rewarded for appropriate gender behavior; punished for inappropriate behavior;
– Males and females are treated differently Males from birth on from 10 10 Standard Role-Theory Model of Standard Socialization Socialization Children passively learn lessons from their Children parents parents Some researchers believe this is too Some simplistic simplistic
– Children and parents influence each other’s Children behaviors as socialization proceeds behaviors
11 11 The Media Children learn from what they see
– Books, T.V., videos, etc. – As recently as the 1960s, children’s media As was most likely to have male main character was – Since feminist movement, more equal Since treatment is evident treatment 12 12 Early Peer Groups Peer group: People same age, status Same sex peers are strongly influential
– Boys reinforce competitive, dominant Boys interaction interaction 13 13 Children’s Preferences Messages teach boys and girls different Messages gender roles gender
– Boy’s aggressive behaviors may have biological Boy’s basis basis 14 14 Later Peer Groups Children develop an internalized sense of Children appropriate behavior appropriate Socialized by playing games and sports
– Learn behaviors expected of them – Try out behaviors/get feedback Play behaviors reinforced adult life emphasis Males—competitive, control of emotions Females—emotional closeness, cooperation, home, Females—emotional family family 15 15 Unconscious Influences Psychoanalytic approach: Gender identity and behavior are based on unconscious internalization of same-sex parent qualities parent Boys must transfer their attachment and Boys identity from their mothers to their fathers fathers
– Girls do not have to do this
16 16 The Continual Construction The of Gender of Recent thinking is that gender is more Recent fluid/fragile
– Needs constant reinforcement – Constant maintenance 17 17 Doing Gender Interactionist approach: Gender identification/behavior based on day-toidentification/behavior day behavior that reinforces gender day distinctions distinctions
– Article by West and Zimmerman (1987) 18 18 Sex Categories Sex category: sex that people assign to a Sex person based on socially recognized indicators of being man or woman indicators
– Clothing, hair style, body shape, gestures, way Clothing, of talking of 19 19 Precarious Gender Differences Interactionist approach – gender differences Interactionist are fragile and must be reinforced and reproduced reproduced Socialization theorists and evolutionary Socialization theorists say no 20 20 Gender and Male Domination Structure of society—hierarchies of Structure dominance and power dominance Patriarchy: Social order based on the domination of women by men, especially in agricultural societies in Stratifies society 21 21 The Sex-Gender System Sex-gender system: Transformation of biological differences between women and men into social order that supports male domination male
– Organized so that men can make or have Organized access to more money access Creates wage gap 22 22 The Sex-Gender System (cont.)
– Capitalism: An economic system where goods and services are privately produced and sold on a market for profit and Employers hire women at lower rates for same Employers job job Women’s lower wages create divisions between Women’s male/female workers male/female Unpaid household work of housewives helps Unpaid families families 23 23 The Sex-Gender System (cont.)
– Socialism: Government decides on number and types of goods and who they are distributed to distributed – Comparable-worth discrimination: Men and women doing different jobs of equivalent value for same company, but women paid less women 24 24 Gender, Class, and Race Gender as primary basis of social Gender stratification stratification In order to really understand social In stratification, all three overlapping lenses (gender, class and race) must be studied (gender, 25 25 Gender: The Male Point of View Often look at gender from women’s Often conditions conditions In 1980s began looking at masculinity In masculinity
– Set of personal characteristics that society Set defines as being male defines 26 26 The Contributions of Gender The Studies Studies Different approaches
– Socialization – Sex-gender system – Biosocial – Psychoanalytic – Interactionist 27 27 The Contributions of Gender The Studies (cont.) Studies Sociologists contributions
– Roles of men and women are part socially Roles and culturally constructed and – Gender distinctions sometimes reflect Gender differences between men and women differences – Patrilocal: Kinship system in which newly married couples live with the husband’s parents parents
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course AOC 320 taught by Professor Donham during the Fall '09 term at CSU Long Beach.
- Fall '09