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Chapter 2 The History of the Family

Chapter 2 The History of the Family - Ch2 The History of...

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Ch2 The History of the Family The Study of the Family Began in 1960 Aries History of childhood Demos What Do Families Do? Origins of Family and Kinship Evolutionary theory—infants need care Hunter-gatherers Settled agriculture Lineages: Form of kinship in which descent is traced Patrilineage: Father’s line Matrilineage: Mother’s line Ensure order Defend against outsiders Provide labor Assist others in group Recruit new members Through marriage In most societies it is smaller family units Mother and children always Husband/father, usually Other household members, sometimes Western culture—smaller kinship groups Conjugal family: Husband, wife and children Extended family: Other relatives present in household Polygyny: One man, many wives Polyandry: One woman, more than one husband Family and kinship systems were developed to provide fundamental needs Food production Defense Na Kinship Brothers and sisters live in mother’s household for life Instead of taking wives, men visit women in other households free to visit any Na woman who will consent to sex When children are born, they remain with mother and maternal aunts and uncles Fathers do not live with their children, but they are a presence in their lives After Communist Revolution in China, government began to promote monogamy among the Na – they resisted Government eventually backed down Modes of Production—Historical Production Familial Reproduction = Mode of Consumption Production Characteristics: Self-sufficient, farming family Grow food, raise animals, produce clothing and build dwellings Modes of Production—Recent Reproduction = Labor Market Production Mode of Production Characteristics: Work for wages Buy goods and services Separated home from workplace Parental authority eroded—land no longer bargaining chip The American Family before 1776 Indigenous people—American Indians European Colonists African Slaves American Indian Families: The Primacy of the Tribes American Indian—Indigenous people of North America Family units based on lineages Native American families—exception Tribes, both matrilineal and patrilineal Matrilineal ties to maternal kin Patrilineal ties to paternal kin European Colonists: The Primacy of the Public Family Families performed public services Education Hospitals Houses of correction Orphanages Nursing homes Poor houses Children—economic assets
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