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Unformatted text preview: WORK, COMMUNITY, CULTURE WORK, AND WELL-BEING One of the most significant areas of most One people’s lives is the world of work. people’s Job satisfaction –iis defined as an s emotional reaction that “results from perceptions that one’s job fulfills or allows the fulfillment of one’s important job values” (Locke, 1976) (Locke, Job satisfaction is intimately tied to a Job person’s values and needs. person’s Cont. Cont. Satisfaction is further defined as our Satisfaction emotional reaction to how well those needs are satisfied and our values are supported. are Job morale is used to describe a person’s Job desire to remain at their job, or it may be used to describe aspects of group behavior at work rather than individual attitudes. at Elements of Job Satisfaction: The Person The Positive emotions generally enhance Positive problem solving and decision making and lead to more flexible, innovative, and creative solutions. creative Employee who experience more positive Employee emotions at work make greater contributions to organizational effectiveness. effectiveness. Workers who experience more positive Workers emotions tend to be injured less on the job. emotions “It’s Not Just a Job, It’s a Calling” Occupations are viewed in three ways:
– Simply a “job” in that they focused on the Simply financial gains from work and on the necessity of work and earning a living. of – As a “career” as a way to facilitate achievement As motivation, to stimulate their need for competition, or enhance prestige and satisfaction. satisfaction. – As a “calling” as a source of personal fulfillment As believing that what they did had a socially useful purpose. What they did was a service to self and to other people. and Being in Flow at Work Being People who enjoy their jobs often report People being in a state of flow while at work. being Having more flow experiences may be one Having key to job satisfaction. Emotional Intelligence at Work Emotional Some suggest that a person’s level of E.I. Some may be one of the most important factors in career success as well as job satisfaction. career Improving Job Satisfaction: The Person Improving What can individuals do to help enhance What their own career satisfaction? their An emphasis on personal strengths – those An traits, abilities, interests, and skills that show us at our best and make us unique. us Myths that inhibit our potential are:
– Fixing our weaknesses is a better strategy than Fixing fostering and building our strengths. fostering – Anyone can do anything they put their mind to. Anyone Two aphorisms that express this myth: “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again, and “If you can conceive it, you can achieve it.” conceive Cont. Cont. The idea that anyone can do anything is The ridiculous. There are real limits to what we can accomplish in life. can Part has to do with personality traits. If Part certain jobs seem to be a poor fit with one’s basic personality traits, then it makes very little sense to spend a majority of one’s time trying to fix the “weakness” that is presented by that trait. by Instead, people should focus on their Instead, strengths. People should focus on what they do right. Find out what you do well and do more of it. more Recognize Your Strengths Recognize Five characteristics of strength we can use Five to help recognize them: to
1. Represent “yearnings” - strong psychological Represent pulls that we have toward certain interests, goals or directions. goals 2. When we use it, it gives us intrinsic When satisfactions. When we activate a strength, we feel good about ourselves and about the activity. activity. 3. When we are using it in certain contexts, When learning comes easier. learning Cont. Cont. 4. In moments when we activate that strength 4. we perform extraordinarily well. we 5. Combines many of the previous ones, for it 5. says that when we activate a strength, performance seems to take less effort, we are interested in the activity, we are involved, we learn quicker, and there seems to be a deeper sense of satisfaction. satisfaction. The Development of Strengths The Strengths develop best in relation to another Strengths person. person. Interpersonal support, understanding, Interpersonal empathy, and commitment to relationships help create the crucible in which strengths can grow. Strengths also develop when we place Strengths positive expectations on others and ourselves. ourselves. Strengths develop best within the Strengths framework of a mission. The mission provides an overall direction or purpose for Elements of Job Satisfaction Elements The Work Environment There are many different factors that create There the environments where people do their jobs jobs
– Multiple social relationships – Time one is expected to spend on the job – Type of organizational structure Type – Opportunities for advancement or recognition – Ability to use one’s learned skills or learn new Ability skills skills – Numerous elements that involve the issues of Numerous pay and equity pay Job Characteristics and Well-Being Job Six Factors of the work environment that Six make work satisfying: make
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Variety and challenge Elbow room for decision making Good feedback to enhance learning Mutual support and respect Wholeness and meaning to work Room to grow, or an optimistic and bright Room future – Optimal satisfaction comes from a certain Optimal balance in each of these areas. balance Ten Qualities of Positive Work Environments Environments
1. Opportunity for personal control 2. Opportunity for skill use 3. Reasonable externally generated goals 4. Variety 5. Environmental clarity 6. Availability of money 7. Physical security 8. Supportive supervision 9. Opportunity for interpersonal contact 10. Valued social position (Text pg. 224-225) Improving Job Satisfaction: Improving Healthy Work Environments Three Major Points:
– Work redesign – Teams and work groups – Transformational leadership Work design includes having clear lines of Work communication, knowing whom one reports to when there are difficulties, and finding a good fit between one’s personality and the role one fills at work. Finally, the need for appropriate workloads is becoming increasingly important in today’s job environments and Cont. Cont. Team and Work Groups
– One of the advantages of teams is that they can One provide the social networks, they provide for companionship, and they give people readily available sources for help and practical assistance. There is a sense of cohesion a group sense of purpose. group Transformed Leadership – This refers to a style of leadership in This which supervisors, managers, and others help establish a sense of mission or vision for the future. for Cont. Cont. Transformational leaders, help to make the Transformational workplace more meaningful for employees. Rather than being seen as authority figures, they are seen as coaches who can motivate, inspire, and provide a sense of direction. They bring to the workplace a strong sense of justice, ethics, and fairness. They challenge people to do their very best, They convince people they can perform beyond expectations, encourage workers to think for themselves etc. themselves Cont. Cont. Breakthrough Leadership – men and women who seize the opportunities that come from extraordinary incidents or events. events. Breakthrough leaders seize these moments Breakthrough and help others explore the possibilities these events open up. these “Putting People First” in Organizations Organizations are more successful when Organizations they “put people first”. Is This the Best Company in the World to Work For? in SAS, a software company in North Carolina SAS, voted one of the best companies to work for. It provides a positive work environment, which results in high job morale at SAS. which Comments on Job Satisfaction See text pg. 228 SOCIAL WELL-BEING SOCIAL Five Dimensions of Social Well-Being
– Social acceptance or the degree to which Social people generally hold positive attitudes toward other people. other – Social actualization or the degree to which Social people believe that society has the capacity to develop and grow toward being a better place develop – Social contribution refers to how much people Social believe their daily activities contribute to the society and ho much those activities are valued by their community. by Cont. Cont. – Social coherence or the degree to which the Social society seems to be understandable, predictable, and logical. predictable, – Social integration refers to how much a person Social feels a part of their own community as well as how much support and commonality they feel with others in their social world. with Positive Communities and Positive Community Psychology Context minimization error – ignoring the impact that social contexts have on our behavior and our emotions. Research may wrongly attribute responsibility for behavior completely to individual personality traits. completely Community psychology – emphasizes the role of the environment and the social world in both the creation of problems and through an emphasis of how to intervene to solve problems. Community psychology studies the person-in-social-context. the Three aspects of community psychology: Three Cultural relativity suggests an acknowledgment of Cultural the fact that social rules, mores, and standards may differ for different cultural groups. may The idea of diversity acknowledges that fact that in The many societies, the reality of cultural diversity presents the necessity of recognizing that differences between subgroups in a community will continue to exist. will The notion of ecology is here applied not just to The ecology the natural environment but also to the reality of a human ecology. People exist in a variety of intricate relationships with their environment. intricate Cont. Cont. These perspectives of community psychology imply These several principles. (text pg. 230) several Person-environment fit Focus on competencies Political activism Empowerment Empowerment refers to the process of enabling Empowerment people who are marginalized or underprivileged to gain a measure of personal and political power. To be empowered is to take charge on one’s life and feel a sense of efficacy, competence, and selffeel determination. Cont. Cont. Learned empowerment – people can learn Learned to take a measure of control over their communities. communities. Collective efficacy – is a sense of social Collective cohesion in a community that creates local friendship networks and a sense of agency or a willingness to intervene in making the neighborhood a better place to live. neighborhood Examples are: crime watch, PTA, watching Examples neighbor’s children at the park, paying attention to unusual activity at another’s house, keeping one’s lawn mowed, etc. house, Community Intervention Community Community Strengths Community
– Process of “asset-mapping” and “appreciative Process inquiry” by listing internal assets. i.e. what they have to contribute right now in terms of strengths, relationships, partnerships, goals, and dedication. and – Goals for the community or what people want to Goals accomplish stated in positive terms. accomplish – In Native American community activities were In designed to promote their values and traditional stories, myths, and legends. Also plays that focused on the qualities that enabled their ancestors to survive and flourish. ancestors Cont. Volunteerism People volunteer for a number of different People reasons, including altruism, a wish to gain knowledge and understanding, as a result of social pressures, and from a wish to enhance selfpressures, esteem. Only a few of those motives relate to long-term Only volunteerism. volunteerism. People who volunteer over extended periods of People time tend to be motivated by a desire for knowledge or greater understanding and by a desire to enhance their self-esteem. In some ways, they view their efforts as contributing to their own personal growth. own SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING IN DIFFERENT CULTURES DIFFERENT Culture –one definition is “the set of attitudes, one values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people, communicated from one generation to the next via language or some other means of communication” communication” Happiness – (generic definition) unqualified Happiness emotional state of feeling good. People in all cultures have some notion of this generic positive emotional state but there are substantial differences in how this general feeling is understood, expressed, and experienced. Money, Wealth, and Income Money, Well-being ultimately depends on happiness Well-being plus personal development, virtuous behavior, and justice. behavior, More wealth and income does not mean More that individuals are happier. that Democracy and Social Norms Satisfaction with government is a relatively Satisfaction small predictor of life satisfaction in the U.S. small Cultural Conceptualization of Emotion Cultural Cultural display rules – are rules for how emotions should be expressed. Certain words used to describe emotions in Certain other cultures may have no exact equivalent in English. in Cultural Conceptualizations of Self and W .B. One of the major findings in subjective wellbeing research is that a positive selfconcept is highly related to a greater sense concept of well-being. of The Self in Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures and Individualistic cultures tend to place greater cultures emphasis on individualism, autonomy, freedom of expression, and on each person’s internal thoughts, emotions, and experiences. The U.S. and most western European countries are very individualistic. individualistic. Collectivist cultures – tend to be more socially Collectivist tend oriented and place emphasis on a person’s oriented immediate group and on the significant relationships between members of the group. relationships Well-Being in Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures and People in individualistic cultures pay more People attention to their own inner lives than do people in collectivist cultures. people People in collectivist cultures tend to People emphasize interpersonal relationships and gauge their well-being by looking at how those relationships are functioning. those Summary (text pg.239) ...
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- Fall '07