Positive_Psych._Ch.7 - EXCELLENCE, AESTHETICS, CREATIVITY,...

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Unformatted text preview: EXCELLENCE, AESTHETICS, CREATIVITY, AND GENIUS CREATIVITY, THE PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE Excellence is the acquisition of extraordinary Excellence skill in a specific area of expertise. skill People who exhibit excellence are able to People perform some behavior, talent, or skill much more fluently and expertly than are other people. more The Foundations of Excellence The Is it the result of innate ability or is it Is genetically determined? genetically Different research suggest different Different opinions. opinions. The Development of Excellence First First elements involve cognitive skills. And the first of these is a large knowledge base in the specific domain. in cont. In addition to memory skills for relevant In aspects of their interest area and a large knowledge base, studies have found that expert performers also possess other cognitive abilities. They often learn shortcut strategies for reaching decisions that allow them to leap to conclusions faster than others. faster Cont. The knowledge base of an expert is not just a The random collection of facts. Rather, it is an organized cluster of information that involves numerous links between concepts that allow quicker and easier access to memory and problem-solving strategies. problem-solving These skill allow experts to find solutions quicker These because they do not get sidetracked into as many blind alleys as other people do. many Studies indicate that many of these cognitive Studies skills can be taught. skills Cont. A second element in expert performance second is the motivational factor of commitment. commitment. People are determined to succeed and People can persevere in spite of difficulties. can Finally, the single most important factor in Finally, acquisition of expert performance is practice. This is important in at least three practice. ways. ways. First, those who truly excel at a specific First, discipline often begin to practice earlier in life. life. Cont. Second, those who were most Second, accomplished practiced more hours than others did. Consistency of practice is also important to the development of expertise. important Third, in addition to the time put into Third, practice, studies have also found that a certain style of practice, called deliberate practice, is important. It is defined as practice that is focused, planned, concentrated, and effortful. concentrated, Cont. In deliberate practice, the focus is on the In task at hand with attention to what the person is doing correctly, or incorrectly, at each moment. each People usually set about four hours a day People to allow them to perfect their skills. to Excellence therefore, requires a sensible Excellence balance of hard work and rest. balance The ten-year rule states that it takes at least ten years of dedicated, consistent practice before a person can obtain excellent performance levels excellent Resonance Resonance Resonance performance model, is the Resonance cyclical process that guides the development of excellence in many different areas of expertise. RPM is a four-stage model. “the dream” or the feelings a person seeks the when engaged in an activity. when The person must be involved in intense The “preparation”. “Engaged practice” rather than drudgery. drudgery. Cont. RPM model continued Inevitably, a person encounters “obstacles.” Person “revisits their dream” or reconnects with the feelings that give spark their dream. This reconnection with original feelings allows a person to embrace the obstacles, to avoid the trap of trying harder and enjoying less, and to move forward with the development of skills. skills. ASTHETICS AND THE GOOD LIFE ASTHETICS Why Is the Aesthetic Sense Important to Why Well-Being? Well-Being? In short, the desire to stimulate the In aesthetic sense has been around since the beginnings of humanity. the A sense of aesthetics can also help us sense learn about the world around us. Interesting objects, curious patterns, and unexpected color combinations can stimulate our sense of curiosity. stimulate Art as a Doorway to Personal Growth Art According to this approach, art should According challenge people to view the world, others, and themselves in new ways and stimulate people t think and feel differently. differently. Art as an Aid to Healing and a Boost to Art Intelligence Intelligence It turns out that music really can heal. Finding Beauty Outside the Arts Finding Anyone who has been involved with highllevel athletic competition will tell you that evel one of the appeals of athletics is that at certain times during a competition, the grace, precision, or even the audacity of the athletes id “beautiful”. the Origins of the Aesthetic Sense Many judgments of what is beautiful are Many learned from our respective cultures and periods of history in which we live. periods Can Tragedy and Sadness Be Beautiful? Can Through the medium of art, people can Through experience tragedy and gain at least three benefits. benefits. First, the sense of empathy for the characters First, in the creation reminds us of our shared humanity and may even serve to increase qualities such as compassion and charity. qualities Second, this new sense of compassion can Second, also build a resolve not to allow such tragedies to occur if we can do something about it. about Cont. Third, experiencing life’s sad and tragic Third, moments in a work of art can allow us to feel certain emotions without having to live through the actual experience itself. live Paradoxically then, the power of tragedy Paradoxically is that we can feel real negative emotions that under the right circumstances can lead us to experience emotions of compassion, hope, relief, empathy, or courageous resolve. resolve. Creativity Creativity For some people, creativity and the For actualization of creative potential is the primary goal in life and can even supersede most other goals. supersede What is Creativity? Hard to define. Part of the problem is that Hard there is a very wide range of behaviors that fall under the label of creativity. that Two Basic Types of Creativity Two Process Creativity refers to a personal Process and somewhat more psychological type of creativity. It is associated with: creativity. increased openness to experiences, a willingness to accept and even relish willingness change, the ability to improvise and adapt quickly to the situations, and a greater than average ability to think in and unexpected directions. unexpected Cont. Product creativity is what most people Product think of when they use the term creativity. creativity. It is the process of finding highly original and inventive solutions to problems. and Creative people seem to sense where the Creative “fit” will be between their talents and the problems that are just waiting for a creative solution. creative The Measurement of Creativity The Many people can recognize creativity Many when they see it. when Creativity in one domain, such as art, was Creativity only moderately associated with creativity in a different domain, such as writing. in The confluence approach to creativity The confluence assumes that multiple factors need to be in place in order for real creativity to occur. in Cont. Six resources need to work together in Six creativity: creativity: Intellectual abilities Knowledge Personality traits A motivational style Thinking styles And an environment that is supportive of the And creative process and creative output creative Summarized in four general areas: the creative person, the creative the process, creative products, and creative environments. environments. The Creative Person The Creative people are intensely interested in Creative their field and willing to work hard and work for a long time. work Creative people seem to be experts in Creative their field as well as creative within it. their In some ways, highly creative people are In different than other people, and those differences enhance their ability to find the novel, the unique, and the unexpected. novel, Creative people do tend to share a Creative number of traits that could be classified as openness to experience. openness Cont. Creative people tend to Creative be highly flexible in their thinking and quite tolerant for ambiguity or even outright disorder, in fact they tend to also have a higher tolerance for frustration. for They also tend to be very independent They and consider themselves to be loners. and They also seem willing to restructure They problems or play with ideas, concepts, and solutions. solutions. Creativity also is associated with being Creativity intrinsically motivated. intrinsically Cont. Other personality characteristics that have Other been associated with creativity include receptivity, sensitivity to problems, fluency in thinking, and a willingness to take risks. in Summarizing many of these qualities into Summarizing three major characteristics of creative person: Experts in their chosen field or artistic medium Possess and utilize the cognitive skills and Possess personality characteristics personality Are intrinsically motivated The Creative Process The Cont. Regression in service of the ego – is the ability to temporarily submerge the rational and control functions of the ego and tap into cognitive processes that were more allegorical, symbolic, and holistic. symbolic, The Four Stages of the Creative Process Creative First, stage is preparation, or the time First, when information is gathered, initial attempts to solve a problem are attempted, a variety of ideas are tossed around, and in general, the stage is set for a creative solution. for Cont. Second stage, or incubation stage, Second attempts to find a creative solution are handled at an “unconscious” level of processing. processing. Third stage, illumination, is initiated when Third a creative solution emerges often rapidly and unexpectedly as an insight. and Last stage, is verification which involves Last working on how to turn the illumination and insight into a real world solution that can be applied practically. can Thinking Style and Creativity Thinking Convergent thinking is the process we Convergent use when various problem-solving strategies converge on a single, correct answer to a problem. answer Divergent thinking is the ability to think in Divergent many different ways, using a number of strategies that, at least initially, may or may not show any direct relevance to the solution. It is the ability to produce many different solutions to the same problem different Creative Environments Creative The families of creative people seem to share a The few common characteristics. few Many highly creative people seem to have come Many from turbulent childhoods in which they received comparatively little emotional comfort. comparatively Interestingly, these families strongly encouraged Interestingly, their children to achieve and also provided many opportunities and resources for learning and new experiences. new One important factor that does not seem One important is heredity. important Work environments that encourage exploration Work and diversity of thinking can also foster creativity. creativity. Genius Genius Current meaning – someone who shows Current extraordinary levels of creativity and inventiveness. inventiveness. May be some connection between bipolar May disorder and creativity. Pg.148-149 in text disorder Finally, childhood experiences may have Finally, an impact on creativity and genius. Seen to be a relationship between genius and early loss in childhood. Summary pg. 149 in text. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course HUM SRVS 100 taught by Professor Lovern/elam during the Fall '07 term at Allan Hancock College.

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