Unformatted text preview: Gender-Role Standards and Stereotypes Stereotypes Sex stereotypes that men are more Sex aggressive than women and women more interpersonally sensitive than men are very robust, even among more educated people, both sexes, all social classes. – Probably because they have some Probably truth in them! – Keep in mind that male/female Keep distributions overlap. distributions Gender differences Gender differences NOTE: There are overlaps in all of these areas so that, for example, some NOTE: girls are more physically aggressive than some boys. Physical Sex Differences: Differences: Girls more advanced physically throughout childhood; they mature earlier Girls and their development stops sooner. Boys have larger lungs and heart, and they are superior at activities Boys involving gross motor activities and strength; males more likely to suffer a wide range of developmental disorders (speech defects, ADHD, mental retardation), genetic defects (because of x-linkage; WHY?), and are more (because susceptible to malnutrition and disease. Boys are more physically active; in preschool they are more likely than Boys girls to play in a physically active style in larger groups away from the teacher. Girls tend to have a few intimate friends Boys have a larger number of "pals"—guys they hang out with but don't guys have close, intimate, confiding relationships. Gender differences Gender differences Cognitive Sex Differences: Cognitive – Girls superior at verbal abilities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, verbal Girls creativity) during early to middle childhood. These differences become attenuated as children get older, and disappear by adolescence. – Boys have greater visual-spatial ability beginning around age 10. (Visualspatial ability is involved in manipulating objects in two- or three-dimensional spatial space, reading maps, aiming at a target.) – Boys also excel at mathematics beginning around age 12. Boys Some studies indicate that boys have a higher IQ on average than girls by Some late adolescence (~4 IQ points).
– Theory: Girls' development ends sooner than boys, and boys continue to Theory: develop. This is controversial. Girls superior in Conscientiousness: Focused attention, responsibility, Girls dependability, delay of gratification.
– Conscientiousness is strongly correlated with school success. Gender differences Gender differences Social Sex Differences: – Boys more aggressive, especially physical aggression and direct verbal assault. (Girls use indirect forms of aggression such as exclusion, negative gossip.) – Boys more into risktaking and sensation seeking as well as curiosity and exploratory behavior; boys attracted to physically dangerous occupations – Girls more compliant with demands of parents and teachers. (Conscientiousness) – No sex differences in attachment classification. However, Girls more nurturant and dependent. (Affectional System) Infant girls more attracted to faces and may recognize mother's face earlier. – Girls more fearful of possible personal threats and dangers. No sex differences for social phobias, or possibly more common among boys. Gender differences Gender differences Sex Differences in Atypical Development: Sex – Boys more likely to have genetic defects, physical disabilities, mental Boys retardation, reading disabilities, speech defects, and school and emotional problems. – Boys are more likely to have genetic defects because of x-linkage: Boys only Boys have one X-chromosome and therefore any recessive gene on the Xhave chromosome is expressed. Girls are likely to get a dominant normal gene from chromosome their father's X-chromosome. – Boys are "the less canalized sex"—they are more open to environmental Boys they influences, including negative environmental influences. This may be seen as a high risk strategy. Boys are more vulnerable to stress such as family disharmony. The evolutionary theory of sex (see below) implies that boys are expected The to be the high risk sex in general; this is related to the finding that boys are more aggressive and more attracted to sensation seeking. Both aggression and sensation seeking are high risk/high reward undertakings. Developmental Patterns of Gender Typing Developmental 15- to 36-month-old toddlers have clear preferences for toys that are 15"gender appropriate"; but girls are more likely than boys to choose "gender inappropriate" toys. In general, the male role is more clearly defined: there is a narrower range In of activities considered appropriate for males.
– Boys who play with "girl" toys or retreat in the face of aggression "fear Boys derision" (p. 558). "Although we tolerate tomboys, we reject sissies" (pp. 558). – The condemnation comes from both parents (especially fathers) and peers. The Based on survey data, boys in the US like guns, boxing, wrestling and Based karate, team sports, and fixing and making things more than girls. Girls prefer dolls, sewing, cooking, dancing, and looking after younger children more than boys. Parents encourage these patterns by, for example, assigning household Parents tasks. – "Even in the 21st century, girls are more likely to make beds, clean, prepare "Even meals, wash dishes, and do laundry. Boys are more likely to fix things, take out the garbage, and mow lawns" (p. 559). Stability of Gender Typing Stability of Gender Typing Masculinity and femininity develop early and are stable personality characteristics. – This is not surprising, since many of the traits that show sex differences are linked to personality systems. – There is some change in later adulthood as men become more nurturant and expressive, especially in old age. Probably due to less testosterone. Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES Women have small amounts of the male hormone testosterone Women and men have small amounts of female hormones like progesterone and estrogen. In childhood, the differences are quite small, but they increase markedly in adolescents and adults. There are two surges of hormones, prenatally and during There adolescence. – The surge of hormones prenatally affects behavior in childhood, and The the surge during adolescence activates and enhances the early predispositions created by the prenatal surge. – These are critical periods for the effects of hormones on later behavior. Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES Animal studies: Young, Goy, and Phoenix (1967) Animal injected female monkeys with testosterone prenatally or around the time of birth. – Genetic female offspring were Genetic pseudohermaphrodites. Their genitalia were more masculine (large clitoris), and their behavior was also masculine (more aggressive, more mounting behavior [a male mating behavior], more rough and tumble play, more socially dominant). – Similar behaviors are elicited in genetically female Similar rodents injected with testosterone. Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES NOTE: Levels of testosterone are also NOTE: influenced by the animal's experience. Animals that have been repeatedly defeated in fighting have lowered testosterone, and winners have elevated testosterone as a result of their experience.
– This also occurs with humans: Winning an athletic This event results in a surge in testosterone. Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES Human Studies: Girls who have received testosterone or Human testosterone-like hormones prenatally have masculinized behavior.
– These girls are genetic females but their genetalia are typically These masculinized at birth (enlarged clitoris, fused labia that resemble a scrotum). – They often receive an operation to make her appear more feminine. They – These girls have masculinized behavior: Tomboyish, liked vigorous These athletic activities, simply utilitarian clothing; little interest in dolls, babysitting, or caring for younger children, jewelry, cosmetics, or hair styles. – They also had a more male-type achievement pattern and male-type They attitudes toward sexuality. They preferred boys as playmates and boys' toys. Biological Factors in Gender Differences: HORMONES AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HORMONES HORMONES AND COGNITIVE SKILLS – There is evidence for a critical period for brain organization and hemisphere lateralization (males more lateralized). – Testosterone surge prenatally is responsible. This surge makes females process verbal information better and males process spatial information better. – Female fetuses exposed to abnormally high levels of androgens are better at spatial abilities. Sex differences in Spatial Sex differences in Spatial Reasoning Water task; Light bulb in a car going uphill: Male advantage is only found for spatial (geometric) ability, not for computational ability, basic math skills or algebra. – Biological influences do not rule out environmental influences. – Text notes that the differences are relatively small (but small differences lead to large differences in proportions at the high end of the distribution). – Girls enroll in progressively fewer math courses over the high school and college years. Even girls with superior math ability seem less interested in math as they get older (e.g., 34% of advanced physics classes). But the gender gap is narrowing. BRAIN LATERALIZATION: BRAIN LATERALIZATION: Brain becomes increasingly specialized with age, with right hemisphere more specialized for spatial tasks and left hemisphere more specialized for verbal tasks. Women who suffer left hemisphere damage are less likely to have damage to verbal abilities. In a task where children had to identify objects inside a bag, sight unseen, boys were better when feeling with their left hand (controlled by the spatial centers in the right hemisphere). For girls there was no difference between hands in their ability to identify objects. In a rhyming task where subjects were asked if nonsense words rhymed, both sides of women's brains were activated. For men, only the left hemisphere (underlying verbal abilities) was activated. Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Robert Trivers (1972) 1.) MALES DEFINED AS SEX WITH SMALL GAMETES, FEMALES ARE SEX WITH LARGE GAMETES 2.) FEMALES TEND TO INVEST MORE IN REPRODUCTION THAN MALES. – TYPICAL MAMMALIAN FEMALE: PREGNANCY, LACTATION, CAREGIVING'VERY HIGH COST IN TIME AND ENERGY TYPICAL MAMMALIAN MALE: SPERM'VERY LOW COST . Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Robert Trivers (1972) 3.) ECONOMICS 101: WHEN YOU HOLD VALUABLE RESOURCES, YOU DON'T GIVE THEM AWAY. – FEMALES EXPECTED TO BE SELECTIVE, DISCRIMINATING MATERS – FEMALES WANT: MALES WHO WILL INVEST IN OFFSPRING, MALES WITH GOOD GENES, HIGH SOCIAL STATUS, ETC. Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Robert Trivers (1972) 4.) ECONOMICS 101: MALES DO NOT HOLD RESOURCES. THEREFORE THEY MUST COMPETE IN ORDER TO GET THEM. THIS RESULTS IN THE PREDICTION THAT MALES WILL BE MORE AGGRESSIVE. IN GENERAL, MALES MUST COMPETE FOR FEMALES, AND THE MAIN OBSTACLE IS OTHER MALES: – ELEPHANT SEALS: DEFEATING MALES IN COMBAT – CHINESE EMPERORS: CONTROLLING MALES AND FEMALES – MOVIE STARS – SUCCESFUL HUNTERS in huntergatherer societies; – RICH MEN IN ALL SOCIETIES ARE ATTRACTIVE TO FEMALES (The Anna Nicole Smith phenomenon) Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Robert Trivers (1972) 4. (Cont.) MALES HAVE MORE TO GAIN BY BEING HIGH ON AGGRESSION, RISKTAKING, SENSATIONSEEKING, SOCIAL DOMINANCE: SUCCESSFUL MALE CAN MATE POLYGYNOUSLY, SUCCESSFUL FEMALE CAN MATE ONLY ONCE. EVEN IN A MONOGAMOUS SYSTEM, SUCCESSFUL MALES WILL HAVE ACCESS TO HIGHER QUALITY FEMALES (MORE NURTURANT, MORE PRONE TO FIDELITY, HIGHER INTELLIGENCE, ETC.) RISK TAKING AND SOCIAL DOMINANCE PAY OFF MORE FOR MEN. THEREFORE MEN GAIN MORE BY CONTROLLING SOCIETY (PATRIARCHY), AND THEY GAIN MORE BY GOING TO WAR. Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Predictions Sex: WHEN GENGHIS KHAN AND THE MONGOLS WHEN CONQUERED MOST OF ASIA, THEY REALIZED AN ENORMOUS GENETIC PAYOFF BECAUSE THEY ESTABLISHED HAREMS WHEREVER THEY WENT.
– THE MONGOL Y-CHROMOSOME IS STILL FOUND THE AT HIGH FREQUENCIES IN ALL THE AREAS THEY CONQUERED. ~32 million direct descendants ~32 – A MONGOL FEMALE WOULD NOT HAVE MONGOL SIMILARLY BENEFITED BY THIS SORT OF CONQUEST. CONQUEST. Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Predictions FEMALES ADOPT A MORE CONSERVATIVE FEMALES STRATEGY: HIGHER ON FEAR, BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION. FEMALES ALSO EXPECTED TO BE MORE FEMALES NURTURANT AND LOVING AS MATE DISCRIMINATION SYSTEM (females benefit by choosing males who love them and are willing to invest in their children) AND BECAUSE OF ITS ROLE IN NURTURANCE (females who are high on affectional system are prone to nurturance). Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Evolutionary Psychology: Theory of Sex: Predictions Male sexual jealousy more directed at ensuring paternity confidence. Female sexual jealousy more directed at ensuring continued affection as a sign of continued support. The End ...
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