CigaretteSmokeAnalysis_000

CigaretteSmokeAnalysis_000 - Analysis of Cigarette Smoke...

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1 Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Objectives – To collect, observe, and determine the mass of solid particles that enter the human lungs from smoking a cigarette and from second-hand smoke. To quantify the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) in the particulate matter. To determine if there are differences between directly inhaled and second- hand smoke. Introduction The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its Science Advisory Board have consistently ranked indoor air pollution among the top 5 environmental risks to public health. One of the most important contributors to indoor air pollution is cigarette smoke which contains several thousand different chemical compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Tobacco smoking has long been recognized as a major cause of disease and is responsible for an estimated 434,000 deaths per year in the U.S. 1 Another recent study by the EPA concludes that second hand smoke is responsible for approximately 3000 lung cancer deaths in non-smokers annually. 2 Furthermore, exposure to second hand smoke greatly increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia in young children and increases the frequency and severity of symptoms in children with asthma. 2 Some compounds in cigarette smoke such as carbon dioxide and water are benign, while others such as carbon monoxide( CO), nicotine, and solid particulates have adverse health effects. Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen in binding to hemoglobin, reducing the amount of oxygen available to cells. In a smoker, blood concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin bound to CO rather than O 2 , can be 10 times higher than a non-smoker. The levels of CO found in smoking bars can exceed 50 ppm which is considered an unhealthy level. 3 Nicotine, a volatile organic compound (VOC), is highly toxic and acts a stimulant in humans. It is one of the main factors responsible for the addictive nature of smoking. Solid particulate matter, or soot, can be irritating to the lungs and contains carcinogenic compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s). These compounds have fused aromatic rings and several examples are shown in Figure 1. PAH’s can cause cancer as a result of reactions that occur with a certain class of liver enzymes. When enzymes add oxygen to the PAH’s, they produce epoxide adducts that interact strongly with the bases of DNA to alter genes. 4 The concentration of PAH’s in cigarette smoke is about 100μg/m 3 .
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2 Figure 1: Examples of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s). In this lab, you will collect and analyze the particulate matter that would enter the human lungs both from directly smoking a cigarette and from second hand smoke. The mass of the particulate matter will be measured and the concentration of PAH’s will be found using fluorescence. Fluorescence is a sensitive analytical technique based upon the emission of light by an excited molecule. A familiar example of phosphorescence, which
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CigaretteSmokeAnalysis_000 - Analysis of Cigarette Smoke...

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