Unformatted text preview: C118 Study Guide for Exam 1 Atmospheric Chemistry The exam will be part multiple choice and part short answer/calculation You should bring a calculator, pencil, and student ID Material Covered: Ch. 1 and 6.1‐6.5, end of chapter problems, lecture notes from , and discussion worksheets The following formulas and constants will be provided on the exam. p ( z ) = p (0)e ( − z / 6.9) z = altitude in km hc E= λ h = 6.626 x 10‐34 Js c = 3 x 108 m/s Important Concepts Ch 1 Air Pollution 1. Know the composition of air. 2. Know the altitudes associated with the troposphere and stratosphere. In which region is air pollution? In which region is the ozone layer? 3. Know how pressure changes with altitude. Be able to calculate a pressure if given an altitude in km. 4. Know the 6 criteria air pollutant monitored and regulated by the EPA. Also, know sources and health/environmental effects of each. 5. Know the pollutants emitted from coal burning power plants and cars. 6. Understand the meaning of concentration units such as ppm, ppb, and %. Know how to convert from one unit to another. 7. Generally know how the concentration of criteria pollutants have changed since the Clean Air Act began in 1970. Know the reasons for changes in concentrations of these pollutants over time. 8. Know which pollutants are reduced by using a catalytic converter. What are the reactions and how does a catalytic converter work? 9. Know the meaning of the term oxygenated fuel. What type of pollution is reduced by using this fuel? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 10. Know how temperature changes with altitude. 11. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant. What does “secondary” mean? 12. Understand the phrase “Good up high and bad nearby.” 13. Know the three ingredients for forming ozone pollution in the lower atmosphere. Be able to explain why these items are needed. You should be able to write a series of reactions showing the formation of ozone. 14. Understand why NO2 and not other molecules containing oxygen is the only source of O atoms in the lower atmosphere. 15. Given a molecule be able to draw its Lewis structure. 16. Given a bond energy, be able to calculate the wavelength of light needed to break that bond. 17. Know the wavelengths of light emitted from the sun and the wavelengths of light that reach the earth’s surface. 18. Be able to draw a general plot of concentration of the following pollutants (hydrocarbons, ozone, NO, NO2) vs. time of day in a photochemical smog event. Acid Rain Know when acid rain was first measured and documented and generally when regulations were put in place in an attempt to decrease acid rain. (don’t spend time memorizing dates, just a rough idea) Know the Arrhenius and Bronsted Lowry definitions for acids and bases and be able to write a reaction for the following acting as an acid or base: HCl, NaOH, CH3COOH, NH3 Memorize the strong acids and bases. Know the formula pH = ‐log[H+]. Be able to calculate pH given [H+] or calculate [H+] given pH. Know how to calculate pH, given [OH‐]. Know the main ideas from film shown on Friday Oct. 30th. ...
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- Spring '10
- Prime number, Acid rain, km hc E=